Adult a household member aged 16 or more (as at 1 January of the reference year).

Adult with child(ren) – a household with one adult and at least one child.

Child – a household member aged 0–15 (as at 1 January of the reference year).

Couple with minor and adult children – a legally married or cohabiting couple with at least one minor and one adult child whose mother or father is the member of the same household.

Couple with one child – a legally married or cohabiting couple with one child.

Couple with three or more children – a legally married or cohabiting couple with at least three children.

Couple with two children – a legally married or cohabiting couple with two children.

Educational level of the head of the household (reference person) – the highest level of the head of the household.

Head of the household (reference person) – an adult household member with the largest long-term contribution to the household income.

Household a group of people who live in the common main dwelling (at the same address) and share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to be one household. Household can also consist of one member only.

Income from self-employment – income from agricultural and forestry activity (monetary and non-monetary) and income from non-farm self-employment.

Income from wage labour – earnings received from employment (wages and salaries, advance payments and premiums) and holiday compensations without income tax.

Main dwelling – the dwelling where during a longer period the person is spending / has spent

- most of the year,

- most of the time free from work / studies.

Main dwelling of a legally married or cohabiting person is the dwelling where he/she spends most of the time spent with his/her partner or/and children.

Net income – monetary and non-monetary net income which is received as earnings from employment, income from self-employment (agricultural and non-farm employment), property income, pensions and different social benefits, grants, scholarships and other income (selling of goods, settlements of accounts (taxes), refunded insurance premiums, lottery prizes).

Non-monetary income – income from wage labour, as well as income for labour or goods and services received as a gift and calculated into monetary value.

Other income – income from the sale of personal goods, income tax returned, settlement of other taxes, refunded insurance premiums and lottery prizes.

Property income – income from the rent of real estate, income from interests, income from dividends and income from intellectual property.

Retired household – a non-working and non-unemployed household with at least one non-working old-age pensioner.

Rural settlements – small towns and villages.

Transfers – reallocation of resources. It divides in two groups: reallocation of state and local municipality resources (pensions, unemployment benefits, child benefits and other benefits, sick payments) to the members of society; reallocation of private resources, the common of which is from private person to private person (alimonies, subsistence allowance, money donated).

Two-generation household – a household with adult children and their parents.

Unemployed household – a non-working household with at least one unemployed member aged 16 or more (i.e., who is not working, is looking for a job and is prepared to start working within two weeks).

Urban settlements – cities, cities without municipal status and towns.

Working household – a household with at least one working member aged 16 or more.


Statistics Estonia conducts the Household Income and Expenditure Survey regularly. The purpose of the survey is to get reliable information about the economic situation of households, income and expenditure, family relations, employment, education. All households living permanently in Estonia are considered as the surveyed population. The sampling included 520 households per month and 6,240 households per year. The sampling was carried out by stratified systematic sampling procedure. The data were collected from households by face-to-face interviews and by diary questionnaire method. The Population and Social Statistics Department of Statistics Estonia checks the completed diary books and questionnaires. The data are coded and entered centrally. In data entering the system Blaise is used. To calculate the weights and sampling errors the system SAS is used.


Educational levels according to ISCED 97 codes


Below upper secondary education  0-2

no primary education  0, primary education  1

basic education  2

Upper secondary education  3-4

vocational education after basic education  3C

secondary education  3A

vocational education with secondary education  3A

vocational education after secondary education  4B

postsecondary technical after basic education  3A

Tertiary education  5-6

postsecondary technical after secondary education  5B

higher education  5A, master’s degree  5A and doctor’s degree  6


Eesti statistika aastaraamat. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia

Maakonnad arvudes. Counties in Figures

Minifacts about Estonia

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania in Figures


Anu Őmblus

Social Statistics and Analysis Department

Tel +372 625 8482

Updated: 07.08.2018