DEFINITIONS

Age – person's age has been given in full years as at the moment of Census (31 December 2011). The age of children under 1 year of age is 0 years.

Age at the birth of the first child – the data for 2000–2011 were received from the births’ database of Statistics Estonia, the data for earlier years from the 2000 Population Census data.

Area of the dwelling – the total floor area of all rooms and auxiliary premises (kitchen, vestibule, cloakroom, hallway, toilet room, sauna that is within the dwelling, pantry, interstice, bathroom, storeroom, porch, integrated wall closets).

The area of the dwelling does not include cellars, garages (incl. in private houses), boiler rooms, attics (if they are not suitable for permanent habitation) and common rooms (such as stairways, corridors, saunas, etc.) in buildings with multiple dwellings. Open areas (loggias, balconies and terraces) are not included in the area of the dwelling. However, if such areas have been closed in and insulated, they should be added to the total area of the dwelling.

If a household lived permanently in an uncompleted residential building, the area of the finished part of the house should be recorded.

The average area of a dwelling per inhabitant – the dwellings the area of which was known and persons living in these dwellings were taken into account while calculating this indicator.

Building – construction permanently connected to the ground, enclosed within external walls, covered by roof and containing rooms. The Census data include only the buildings containing conventional dwellings.

Child – the definition of child has a narrower meaning in family (family nucleus) than in household.

-  Child in family (family nucleus) - person (regardless of age and legal marital status) was considered to be a child belonging to the same family nucleus as his/her parents (parent) if he/she had not a spouse or cohabitant and own child(ren) in the same household. Both biological and adopted children were recorded as children, but not foster children.

This child’s definition is used in all family tables; it also serves as a basis for distributing families and households into families or households with and without children.

-  Child in household - in households with (at least one) family nucleus all persons corresponding to the previous definition were recorded as children. In addition to abovementioned, all household members younger than 18 years of age living in at least two-member households, who had not a spouse, cohabitant and own child(ren) in the same household were also defined as children. (These under-aged persons had no parents in the same household and they do not belong to family nucleus. In the distribution of household type they are classified as “other person“ or “member of multi-person non-family household“). This kind of definition “child in family” is used in tables where households are distributed by children of different age.

Citizenship – the country, a person is a citizen of. If the person has several citizenships, it was possible to record only one, whereas the priority was Estonian citizenship and the second preference was the citizenship of some other European Union country. “Citizenship undetermined” was recorded if the person had been issued an Estonian alien's passport (the so-called ‘grey passport’).

For children, who had not yet been issued the identity document, the citizenship acquired by birth was recorded. The child was considered an Estonian citizen if at least one of his/her parents was an Estonian citizen at the time of the birth of the child (if the father had died before that, then at the time of the death of the father). If a child has acquired two citizenships by birth, record only one, based on the selection criteria above. If a child is an Estonian resident but has not acquired Estonian or foreign citizenship by birth, record the answer “Citizenship undetermined”.

Citycity municipality. Cities without municipal status have been excluded.

Comfort characteristics of dwelling - availability of kitchen (kitchenette), piped water supply, washing facilities, flush toilet (dry toilet) and central or electrical heating in the dwelling. If the dwelling was equipped with some type of facilities (comfort characteristics) but the facilities were temporarily unavailable (i.e. due to a technical fault), the dwelling was still considered to have these facilities. However, if these facilities had been unavailable for a longer period (for a year or more), they were marked as missing in that dwelling.

-  With kitchen - the dwelling has a room which has at least 4 m2 of floor area or is at least 2 m wide, and includes equipment for food preparation (stationary cooking stove, sink). The dwelling was considered to have a kitchen if it was separated from other rooms with a permanent wall.

-  With kitchenette - the dwelling has a part of a room with equipment for food preparation, or a room with less than 4 m2 of floor area with a stationary cooking stove and/or sink.

-  Without kitchen/kitchenette - the dwelling has no kitchen or kitchenette. For example, in hostel-type buildings, the kitchen is often located outside the dwelling and shared by several households. This includes dwellings where a small portable electrical stove or microwave oven is the only equipment for food preparation.

-  With piped water supply - piped water supply is available if cold water is supplied to the dwelling through pipes and a water tap is used.

-  With washing facilities - washing facilities are available if the dwelling includes a bath or shower that is connected to the water supply and sewerage system (incl. a septic tank). In addition, washing facilities were considered available if the dwelling had a sauna (incl. a sauna which is located outside the dwelling in a separate building on the same lot with a small residential building). Washing facilities were considered unavailable if the bath or shower was located outside the dwelling in a shared room (e.g. in hostel-type buildings) or there was a public sauna in the basement of an apartment building, for example.

-  With flush toilet - the dwelling has a flush toilet which is connected to the water supply and sewerage system (incl. a septic tank).

-  With dry toilet - the dwelling has a toilet which is not connected to the water supply and sewerage system.

-  Without flush/dry toilet - there is no flush toilet or dry toilet in the dwelling; for example, when there are shared toilets in the building or outdoor toilets.

-  With central heating – includes both distant central heating and local central heating (see “Heating option”). The dwelling was considered to have central heating if it was the main (predominantly used) heating option in that dwelling. The dwelling was without central heating if there was no central heating or it was not the main heating option.

-  Electrical heating – the dwelling was considered to have electrical heating if it was the main (predominantly used) heating option in that dwelling. The dwelling was without electrical heating if there was no electrical heating or it was not the main heating option. See “Heating option”.

Command of foreign languages. All the languages different from the mother tongue were considered foreign languages. The data were collected for persons at least three years of age. A person is deemed to speak the language in question if his or her proficiency enables to manage familiar situations of language use in speaking, writing and reading. If the person is able to express himself or herself in familiar communication situations, understands clear talk on everyday subjects, understands the general meaning of uncomplicated texts and is capable of writing short texts for general use, then the language proficiency is sufficient to give an affirmative answer to the question. If the person lacks some of the listed proficiencies but exceeds the levels described above in others, the answer should still be affirmative. For example, a person can be considered to speak the language if he or she

- speaks the language quite fluently but is not able to write in it. This includes, for instance, Russian children in Estonian nursery schools who speak Estonian but are unable to write or read the language;

- is able to read specialty or hobby literature in a foreign language but is not able to speak the language.

Consensual union – two persons are living in a consensual union when they live in the same household (same dwelling) and in their opinion have a marriage-like relationship, but are not legally married. Cohabitants may also be of the same sexes.

Construction time of building – the period when the house was officially approved (commissioned for use). If the construction of the house had been completed but a permit for use had not yet been issued, the time when it was first occupied was noted. If the house had been reconstructed, extended, etc., the year of initial commissioning of the house was noted (except if the house had been completely destroyed and had been restored later). "Uncompleted" was recorded if some rooms of the house were already used as a place of usual residence at the Census moment while active construction still continued.

De facto marital status – at least fifteen-year-old persons were distributed by the actual living arrangement into two groups:

- Living with a partner – person who has a partner he/she was legally married to or is cohabiting with in the same household.

- Living without a partner – person who has no partner living in the same household.

Dialect – a historical regional form of the Estonian language. Estonian dialects are divided into subdialects as follows:

- Eastern dialect – Avinurme, Kodavere, Laiuse, Maarja-Magdaleena, Palamuse and Torma subdialects;

- Mid dialect – Ambla, Anna, Hageri, Harju-Jaani, Harju-Madise, Juuru, Järva-Jaani, Järva-Madise, Jüri, Kadrina, Keila, Koeru, Kolga-Jaani, Kose, Kursi, Kõpu, Nissi, Paide, Peetri, Pilistvere, Põltsamaa, Rakvere, Rapla, Risti, Simuna, Suure-Jaani, Türi, Viljandi, Viru-Jaagupi, Väike-Maarja and Äksi subdialects;

- Western dialect – Audru, Hanila, Häädemeeste, Karuse, Kirbla, Kullamaa, Lihula, Lääne-Nigula, Martna, Mihkli, Märjamaa, Noarootsi, Pärnu, Pärnu-Jaagupi, Ridala, Saarde, Tori, Tõstamaa, Varbla, Vigala and Vändra subdialects;

- Mulgi dialect – Halliste, Helme, Karksi, Paistu and Tarvastu subdialects;

- Coastal dialect – Haljala, Iisaku, Jõelähtme, Jõhvi, Kuusalu, Lüganuse, Vaivara and Viru-Nigula subdialects;

- Insular dialect – Anseküla, Emmaste, Jaani, Jämaja, Kaarma, Karja, Kihelkonna, Kihnu, Käina, Kärla, Muhu, Mustjala, Pöide, Püha, Pühalepa, Reigi and Valjala subdialects;

- Tartu dialect – Kambja, Nõo, Otepää, Puhja, Rannu, Rõngu, Sangaste, Tartu-Maarja and Võnnu subdialects;

- Võru dialect – Kanepi, Hargla, Karula, Põlva, Rõuge, Räpina, Setu, Urvaste and Vastseliina subdialects.

Speakers of a dialect were considered persons at least three years old, who were able to understand the dialect and could speak it. The data about dialects were collected only from those whose mother tongue was the Estonian language.

Disability free life expectancy – the average number of years that a person who attains a given age is expected to live free of disability if current patterns of mortality and disability continue to apply.

Dwelling – a family dwelling, a box of a terraced or semi-detached house or an apartment, if it is suitable for all-year-round habitation. Dwelling is also any other type of housing (e.g., dormitory room; summer cottage, which is not suitable for all-year-round habitation, etc.), which is the place of usual residence of at least one person at the moment of Census. Dwellings were classified as conventional dwellings, accommodation rooms (incl. dormitory rooms) and non-conventional dwellings. The number of rooms of institutions (e.g. children’s home, youth home, care home, penal institution, monastery, etc.) was not fixed in the Census.

- Conventional dwelling – apartment, one-family dwelling, separate part of the family dwelling, a box of a terraced or semi-detached house. The Census covered all conventional dwellings regardless of whether some person lived there or not at the Census moment.

- Apartment – a room or a collection of rooms constructed or converted to be suitable for all-year-round habitation by one household. An apartment must have a separate entrance from outside or from a shared corridor. The definition of apartments also includes parlour kitchens and privatised rooms in former dormitories. The rooms in currently operating dormitories and hotel rooms are not categorised as apartments (these are accommodation establishments).

- One-family dwelling (private house) – a residential building, which has been built for one family and has not been divided into apartments (i.e., it comprises one dwelling). This also includes farmhouses and former summer cottages, which have been adapted or converted for all-year-round habitation. Several households may live in one private house.

- Separate part of the family dwelling – a private house has been divided into two dwellings (apartments) with separate entrances.

- Box of the semi-detached house – a semi-detached house consists of two connected semi-detached house boxes, built on one lot or on two neighbouring lots, where both have separate direct exits to outside.

- Box of the terraced house – a terraced house comprises at least three connected terraced house boxes where every box has a separate exit that leads directly outside.

- Room in a hostel or other accommodation room – room(s) in a boarding school or dormitory for students/employees, also room(s) in an accommodation establishment (hotel, motel, guesthouse, guest apartment, hostel, etc.). (Rooms should be considered to be rooms in an accommodation establishment only if the establishment has been registered as such.) Also social welfare institution providing temporary accommodation (e.g. shelters, social housing units) are included in this sub-division. Such institutions provide temporary shelter for 24 hours a day, but do not provide communal meals. A room in a hostel or other accommodation room was regarded as dwelling if at the Census moment at least one person was residing there permanently.

- Non-conventional dwelling (non-dwelling used for habitation) – this includes rooms, which have not been designed for all-year-round habitation, but served as the place of usual residence for at least one person at the moment of Census. This includes, for instance, summer cottages, which are not suitable for all-year-round habitation, offices, mobile homes (warming rooms), caravans, boats or other rooms adapted for temporary habitation and used by a person over a longer period of time.

Economic activityin case of an employed person the economic activity of the main place of work was recorded during the period of 19–25 December 2011, in case of an unemployed person the economic activity of the last main place of work was recorded (see “main place of work”). If the person worked in the subordinate unit having a different area of activity from the main activity of the employer, the activity of the subordinate unit is recorded. Subordinate unit is a unit in the structure of a company/institution, but having different area of activity or address compared to the main office.

Economically active population (labour force) – persons aged 15 years and older who were considered employed or unemployed during the week preceding the Census (19–25 December 2011). Persons in compulsory military or community service (conscripts) were also considered employed.

Economically inactive population (economically passive population) – persons aged 15 years and older who were not economically active (employed or unemployed) in the week preceding the Census (19–25 December 2011) as well as all children under 15 years (see “economically active population”).

- Persons below the minimum working age – each person who is below 15 years of age.

- Student – a person aged 15 years and older who was not economically active in the week preceding the Census and who was acquiring general, vocational or specialized education at a general education school, a vocational educational institution or an institution of higher education. Persons who study in defence educational institutions in the framework of compulsory military service are not included here (they are conscripts). Persons on academic leave should be noted according to the activity, in which they were engaged during the academic leave.

- Retired person (pensioner) – a person who was not economically active during the week preceding the Census and who has been granted the old-age pension, survivor's pension, pension for incapacity for work, national pension or any other pension.

- Homemaker – persons on parental leave and other persons staying at home:

- on parental leaveparental leave is granted to the mother or the father (in exceptional cases also to the guardian) until the child reaches three years of age. The employment contract or service relationship is suspended for the period of parental leave. This group does not include persons on pregnancy or maternity leave (they are employed);

- other homemaker – a person who was not economically active in the week preceding the Census and was, for the most part of this week, engaged in unpaid housework and/or took care of children or other family members (e.g., housewives). This group also includes the women who did not work before the child was born (consequently, they cannot be on parental leave), provided that they do not belong to any other group (such as student). The group does not include babysitters and housekeepers who work for remuneration.

- Other inactive person a person who was not economically active in the week preceding the Census and who was not included in any of the aforementioned group, e.g.

- person who had given up the search for work, because he/she no longer hoped to find work (‘discouraged’ person);

- person who did not see any reason to work or who lived off his/her assets;

- person who was attending in-service training courses;

- person who was not working due to a disability or long-term illness, except a person who received a pension for incapacity for work;

- person who was, during the week preceding the Census, held in a police or custodial institution (incl. police detention facilities, detention chambers, prisons or preliminary investigation facilities).

- The status of inactive person unknown – the answer of the person showed his/her inactivity, but the exact status is unknown.

Educational attainment – the educational attainment of persons is determined by the highest completed study programme in the formal education system (i.e. in institutions of general, vocational or higher education). Incomplete education does not raise the level of education. The level of education received in a foreign country was determined in the same manner as the level of education acquired in Estonia. The data on the educational attainment of at least 15-year-old persons were collected in the Census; the data on children aged 10–14 have been received from the Estonian Education Information System (EHIS).

The most detailed classification of educational attainment presented in tables (with the corresponding ISCED 97 codes) is as follows:

1. Less than primary education – a person has not completed a level corresponding to primary education (ISCED code 0).

2. Primary educationa person has not acquired lower secondary education (i.e. basic education) but he/she has finished (at least) one of the following types of school:

- 6 grades in 1990 or later;

- 3 grades in 1972–1989;

- 4 grades in 1945–1971;

- 6 grades in 1930–1944, including evening primary schools for adults;

- 4 or 6 grades until 1930;

- one-grade commune school, town primary school, one- or two-grade ministry school, parish school or higher primary school until 1920.

Persons with primary education do not have vocational education, their ISCED code is 1.

3. Vocational education without lower secondary education persons who have received a document certifying vocational training (a school of vocational education, technical school, etc.), without having attained lower secondary education (i.e. basic education). Any in-service training or retraining, training at workplace, hobby education (language courses, folk universities) or pre-vocational education should not be considered here. The ISCED code for all the persons included in this group is 2C. Some of the persons with code 2C are not included here, but belong to the group “lower secondary with vocational education”.

4. Lower secondary education a person has not acquired upper secondary education in a general education school, but he/she has finished

- basic school or at least 9 grades in a general education school in 1990 or later;

- at least 8 grades in a general education school in 1962–1989;

- incomplete upper secondary school or 7 grades until 1961;

- a secondary science school or progymnasium until 1940;

- a vocational secondary school in 1920–1940, or

- has acquired lower secondary education in a special school.

The ISCED code for persons with lower secondary education (i.e. basic education) is 2A.

5. Lower secondary with vocational education – a person has acquired

- lower secondary education (i.e. basic education) in the framework of the vocational education curriculum;

- vocational education after lower secondary education.

This level of educational attainment corresponds to ISCED code 2C or 3C.

6. Upper secondary with vocational education – a person has acquired upper secondary education in the framework of the vocational education curriculum. This group excludes persons who attended a general education school (upper secondary school, gymnasium, etc.) and in addition to secondary education received a certificate of vocational education. This educational attainment corresponds to ISCED code 3B or 3A (some persons with level 3A education belong to the next group).

7. Upper secondary education – a person has graduated from an upper secondary school, a general education college or an evening school of 10, 11 or 12 grades, or has acquired secondary education in a special school for children with disabilities or in a closed special school. This does not include persons who acquired secondary education together with vocational training, or who acquired secondary specialized education on the basis of lower secondary education. The ISCED code for persons with upper secondary education is 3A.

8. Post-secondary non-tertiary education a person who has acquired vocational secondary education or completed a vocational education curriculum after obtaining secondary education. This excludes persons who have acquired secondary specialized education after obtaining secondary education. This level of educational attainment corresponds to ISCED code 4B.

9. Professional higher education – a person has completed

- a technical school, commercial school, higher agricultural or gardening school, nautical school or other educational institution on the basis of a curriculum of secondary specialized education;

- an institution of (professional) higher education, a vocational educational institution or other educational institution, having studied on the basis of a curriculum of higher vocational education (graduation in 2000 or later), professional higher education (graduation in 2002 or later) or Diploma study (graduation in 1992 or later).

This level of educational attainment corresponds to ISCED code 5B.

10. Academic higher education – a person has completed a Bachelor’s or Master’s course, or has acquired higher education according to a curriculum valid before 1992:

- Bachelor’s degree – a person has completed

- Bachelor’s curriculum based on the 4-year programme. In Estonia, admittance according to this programme started in 1992 and ended after 2001.

- Bachelor’s curriculum based on the 3-year programme. In Estonia, admittance according to this programme started in 2002.

- higher education obtained on the basis of a curriculum used before 1992 – a person has a diploma of higher education: he or she has completed a pre-1992 curriculum of higher education at an institute, academy, university or other educational institution. Such curricula may still be in use on the territory of the former USSR.

- Master’s degree or equivalent. Persons with an education equivalent to a Master’s degree include persons who have completed:

- integrated studies of 5 to 6 years (incl. engineering studies) (completion of integrated studies is possible in Estonia since 2002);

- internship;

- one-year teacher training after Bachelor’s studies.

Academic higher education corresponds to ISCED code 5A.

11. Doctorate (incl. former Candidate of Sciences) – a person who has been awarded a Doctoral degree. Also a person who has completed residency is recorded here. Qualification acquired in the educational system of the USSR, certified by a diploma of Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat nauk) or a diploma of doctoral degree (Doktor nauk), is considered as an equivalent to a doctorate. These levels of education could not be obtained by graduating from a folk university, a university of Marxism and Leninism, etc.

This level of educational attainment corresponds to ISCED code 6.

The less detailed levels of education presented in the tables have been generated by aggregation as follows:

- Lower secondary or less – less than primary education, primary education, lower secondary education (i.e. basic education) (groups 1, 2 and 4 of detailed classification).

- Vocational education equal to lower secondary or less – vocational education without lower secondary education, lower secondary with vocational education (groups 3 and 5 of detailed classification).

- Upper secondary without vocational education – coincides with the detailed classification section ‘upper secondary education’ (group 7).

- Upper secondary with vocational educationupper secondary with vocational education, post-secondary non-tertiary education (groups 6 and 8 of detailed classification).

- Higher educationprofessional higher education, academic higher education, doctorate (incl. former Candidate of Sciences) (groups 9, 10 and 11 of detailed classification).

See also “student”.

Employed – a person aged 15 years and older who during the week preceding the Census (19–25 December 2011)

- performed at least one hour of remunerated work as an employee, employer or a freelancer;

- worked without direct payment in a family enterprise or farm owned by his/her family;

- was temporarily absent from work due to leave, illness, etc;

- was in compulsory military or community service (conscript).

If actual working did not coincide with the formal work relationship, the actual working was taken into account.

Employment statusin case of an employed person his/her status at his/her main place of work was recorded during the period of 19–25 December 2011, in case of an unemployed person his/her status at his/her last main place of work was recorded (see “main place of work”). If the person has several statuses at the main place of work, the status with higher income was noted.

- Employee – a person who was employed in full-time or part-time work for the benefit of an institution, company or another employer and who receives remuneration in money or in kind. It was irrelevant whether the place of work has been officially registered or not. Salaried employees include officers and non-commissioned officers.

- Employee with a permanent job – an employee whose employment relationship with the employer has lasted or is likely to last for one year or longer.

- Other employee – an employee whose employment relationship with the employer lasts less than one year. This answer was also noted for persons who earn income with occasional work.

- Self-employed person with employees (employer) – an owner of an enterprise, workshop, shop, office or a similar establishment, also a farmer with at least one permanent salaried employee. (Family members and relatives who worked in the family enterprise or farm without a direct salary were not considered employees). It was irrelevant, whether the enterprise or farm had been officially registered or not.

- Self-employed person without employees (own-account worker) – here are included:

- self-employed person – a person who was engaged in selling of his/her work product (service or commodity) and who owned the necessary means of production and did not use any permanent salaried employees (but might have used salaried employees occasionally);

- farmer without employees – person who runs a farm without any permanent salaried employees (but may use salaried employees occasionally);

- freelancer – a person who was not employed by anyone and was active in a field of art (e.g., artists, writers, etc.), without having a separate enterprise (rooms, land, equipment, etc.). Salaried employees who earn income from occasional work were not considered freelancers.

It is irrelevant whether the work of such self-employed person had been officially registered or not.

- Persons in compulsory military or community service (conscript) – see the concept “person in compulsory military or community service (conscript)”.

- Other employed person (other status) – here are included:

- unpaid worker in a family enterprise or a farm – a person who worked in an enterprise or farm of his or her family without receiving a salary as such and who in return received a part of the income or benefits of the enterprise or farm, including income in kind. This category does not include voluntary work. A person belonged to this group, if he/she lived in the same household as the owner of the enterprise or farm;

- a member of a commercial association – a member in an association, which had the objective, according to the articles of association, to earn material income and to distribute it between members. A person who worked for the commercial association and received remuneration for this work is not a member of commercial association. He or she is a salaried employee.

If the conscripts have not been marked separately in the table of the employed, the distribution “other employed person” also includes them. The distribution “other status” in the table of the unemployed never includes conscripts.

 

Ethnic nationality – ethnic nationality is determined by the respondent. The person has the right to declare himself or herself a member of that ethnic nationality, to which he or she feels the strongest ethnical and cultural affiliation. If a person feels affiliation to several ethnicities, he or she should specify the one that is more important for him or her.

The ethnic nationality of children is decided by the parents. In households where mother and father belong to different ethnicities and have difficulties deciding the ethnic nationality of children, the ethnic nationality of the mother should be preferred.

Family nucleus (family) family is defined in a narrower concept (family nucleus). Family nucleus consists of persons living in the same household who are related as husband and wife, as cohabiting partners (incl. same-sex partners) or as parent and child. Family nucleus can be:

-  legally married couple or cohabiting couple without children (couples without children);

-  legally married couple or cohabiting couple with children (couples with children, children need not be common);

-  lone parent with child(ren).

See also “child in family (family nucleus)”.

Each household member can be a member of only one family nucleus. Family nucleus cannot consist of more than two successive generations. If the household comprises three (or more) generations with parental relationship between them (child, his/her mother and grandmother) the family nucleus is formed of the two youngest generations.

In tables the data are published for family nuclei of private households, the family nuclei of institutional households were not recorded in the Census.

-  Reconstituted family nucleus – married or cohabiting couple with one or more children where at least one child is a non-common child.

Heating option (main heating option) - the predominantly used heating option was recorded.

-  Distant central heating - heating is normally supplied by a central heating power station outside the building. The heating system always services several buildings.

-  Local central heating - heating is supplied by a central heating system located in the same building. The heating system was designed to service one building. This includes, for example, gas, solid fuel and electrical boilers, piped underfloor heating, solar panels, etc. In addition, this option was noted if the dwelling was primarily heated by heat pumps.

-  Stove or fireplace heating - heating is primarily supplied by one or more stoves, incl. iron stoves, kitchen stoves or fireplaces with a heating masonry wall, etc.

-  Electrical heating - heating is primarily supplied by electrical underfloor heating (no water pipes installed under the floor) or by stationary or portable electrical heaters (e.g. mountable electrical convectors (radiators), portable oil radiators, heat blowers, halogen radiators and other heat sources connected directly to the power supply network). This does not include dwellings that are heated by a local central heating boiler which runs on electricity (this is local central heating).

-  No heating options available - noted if the dwelling was not heated.

Household a group of people usually living in a common dwelling, who share available household facilities (common budget and food); a person living alone is also a household.

Households were divided into private households, institutional households and and households of homeless persons.

-  Private household - household living in a dwelling. Private household does not include persons who at the moment of census lived permanently in institutional household.

-  Institutional household - household consisting of persons who at the moment of census lived in institution that operate 24 hours a day throughout the year and provide maintenance for persons living there – accommodation, food and, if necessary, care and treatment (e.g. substitute home, care home). The affiliation and funding sources of the institution are irrelevant. In tables the data are published for usual residents of institutional households, i.e. for those who at the moment of census had been living or probably would stay there for at least 12 months. (see also “type of institution”).

-  Homeless – person who did not have a place of residence (dwelling) at the moment of census, i.e., the person slept in random cellars, staircases, boiler rooms, abandoned buildings, etc. This also includes persons who stay overnight in shelters for the homeless that do not provide 24-hour accommodation. Homeless is not a person who lived for a longer period in a room, which was not designed for habitation (see „dwelling“, type of dwelling „non-conventional dwelling“) or in a shelter that permits 24-hour stay (see type of dwelling „room in a hostel or other accommodation room“).

Household structure – private households were distributed by structure into three groups – non-family households, one-family households and multi-family households.

-  Non-family household – household which does not comprise a family nucleus (e.g. one-person household; household with grandparent and grandchild).

-  One-family household – household which comprises one family nucleus and which may also include persons who do not belong to the family nucleus (so-called “other persons”).

-  Multi-family household – household which comprises two or more family nuclei and which may also include persons who do not belong to the family nucleus.

Each group was divided further into sub-groups (the level of details varies in different tables).

See also “child” and “household with a missing generation”.

Household with a missing generation - household where one or two grandparents live together with one or more grandchildren, of whom at least one is younger than 18 years of age, but neither of the child’s/children’s parents belongs to the household. (The prerequisite is that the person aged less than 18 has no partner or child in the same household.) Households with a missing generation can be in households with family nucleus (there is a couple of grandparents in the household) as well as in households without nucleus (there is one lone grandparent in the household).

International migrantspersons whose usual place of residence at the moment of Census was in Estonia and who have during their lifetime changed their country of usual residence. This group includes:

- all foreign-born persons (immigrants);

- those persons born in Estonia who have lived abroad permanently (for at least 12 months) and returned to Estonia. The following cases were not considered residing permanently abroad:

- employment in a foreign country, if the person spent most of his/her vacant days with his/her household in Estonia;

- studies at a general education school (upper secondary school, basic school, etc.) or secondary vocational school in a foreign country if the parents' home was in Estonia;

- compulsory military service in a foreign country, irrespective of its duration, participation in a war or being a war-prisoner (e.g., military service in other Soviet republics during the ‘Soviet period’);

- residence up to the year 1945 in Petseri (Pechory) county or in the former territory of the Republic of Estonia to the east of the Narva River;

- diplomatic service in a foreign country or residence in a foreign country of military or navy personnel of the Republic of Estonia.

Legal marital status – at least fifteen-year-old persons were distributed by the legal (de jure) marital status as follows:

- Never legally married – a person who has never been legally married.

- Legally married – a person whose marriage is legal and has not terminated due to death of the spouse or divorce. A person can also be legally married if he or she does not live with his or her spouse. Only a marriage between a man and a woman is considered legal in this context.

- Divorced – a person whose (previous) legal marriage terminated due to registration of divorce and who has not entered into a new legal marriage.

- Widowed – a person whose (previous) legal marriage terminated due to death of the spouse and who has not entered into a new legal marriage.

Length of the working week – time in hours actually worked during typical working week of a person over the longer period at all places of work. Working time also includes regular overtime work and unofficially worked hours.

Limitations of everyday activities due to health problems – limitations due to health problems which had lasted or were expected to last for at least six months. ‘Everyday activities’ refers to working, studying, housekeeping, personal grooming, communicating with other people, recreational activities, etc. Everyday activities were considered very much restricted if the person required daily assistance, and were considered to some extent restricted if the person required assistance with some activities, but not on a daily basis.

Life expectancy – the average remaining lifetime in years for persons who attain a given age if mortality remains unchanged. At the age of 0 – the life expectancy at birth.

Location of educational institution – the data have been obtained from the Estonian Education Information System (EHIS). While comparing the location of the educational institution with the student’s place of residence, it is important to remember the following: students of institutions of higher education and post-secondary vocational education residing outside their former homes during their studies were generally considered to have a place of residence at the address at which they lived during the studies; in case of these students study migration did not take place.

Location of job – the place (region) where a person actually worked at his/her main place of work during the week preceding the Census (19–25 December 2011). This may differ from the location of the main office of the workplace.

- No fixed workplace (mobile workplace) – was recorded for persons whose workplace had no fixed address and whose workday did not always start from the same place (e.g., long-distance truck drivers; long-distance seafarers and other ship crewmembers; builders who worked on different sites). In some tables of work-migration the term “no fixed workplace” includes all persons with mobile workplace, in some tables only those who worked in several counties of Estonia or in several foreign countries and the rest were presented among counties or foreign countries (see the notes of the table).

- Not applicable – comprises persons in compulsory military or community service (conscripts). Conscripts were considered employed but their place of service is not revealed in the tables.

Long-term illness or health probleman illness or a health problem which had lasted or was expected to last for at least six months. This also includes health problems from which a person had suffered for a long time, but which had not been diagnosed by a doctor. In addition, long-term health problems include recurrent health problems, including conditions which were controlled or relieved by regular administration of medication or other treatments.

Main place of work – the place of work where a person worked for most of the time. The time actually worked was taken into account, not the working time fixed with the contract of employment. If the respondent was unable to state the main place of work on the basis of hours, wages and prestige should be the next criteria to be considered.

Median age – the age that divides population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.

Moment of Census – the date and the time fixing the data collected by the Census. The moment of Census of the 2011 Population and Housing Census was on 31 December 2011 at 00.00.

Mother tongue – the language, which was learned in early childhood as the first language and in which the person is generally most proficient.

The mother tongue of young children was decided by their parents. If parents had difficulties deciding the mother tongue of a child, the language usually spoken in the household was recorded.

In case of deaf persons, sign language could also be noted as mother tongue. If a person has grown deaf at a later age, the first language learned as a child was recorded as mother tongue.

Native and foreign-origin population – the population of Estonia has been divided into native and foreign-origin population as follows:

- Native population - persons permanently living in Estonia, at least one of the parents and at least one of the grandparents of whose were born in Estonia.

- Foreign-origin population - persons permanently living in Estonia who do not belong to the native population. Foreign-origin population has been divided into the first, second and third generation as follows:

- the first generation of foreign-origin population - persons permanently living in Estonia who and whose parents were born abroad;

- the second generation of foreign-origin population - persons permanently living in Estonia who were born in Estonia but whose parents were born abroad;

- the third generation of foreign-origin population - persons permanently living in Estonia of whose parents at least one was born in Estonia but whose all grandparents were born abroad.

In occasions where the information about the country of birth of the three generations (the person himself/herself, his/her parents and grandparents) was missing, the person was classified in some above-mentioned group mostly based on the data of two generations (see Methodology, Finding the native population and three generations of the foreign-origin population).

Number of generations in household – the number of generations in household is determined by relatives of directly ascending/descending line. The number of generations is not influenced by relatives or non-relatives (the so-called “other persons”) living in the same household with the members of family nucleus, but are not their parents, grandparents or other relatives of the direct line.

-  One generation household - includes

-  one-member household

-  household including one or more married or cohabiting couples without children and where there are no directly ascending/descending relatives.

-  Two generation household – one-family or multi-family household, where there is at least one parent-child relationship between household members and there are no grandparent-grandchild relationships.

-  Household with at least three generations – household where there is at least one grandparent-grandchild relationship between household members, except household with a missing generation.

-  Household with a missing generation - see “household with a missing generation”.

-  Not applicable - non-family households, which are not households with a missing generation or one-member households.

Number of live-born children – include all children born alive before the moment of Census (31 December 2011 at 00:00) regardless of whether they are living or not at the time of the Census. Adopted children and stepchildren are not taken into account here. The data were collected from at least 15-year-old women. Option “No live-born children” was noted if the woman had not given live birth to any child or the child was born on 31 December 2011 or later.

Average number of live-born children per woman – women whose number of live-born children was known (incl. those who had not given birth to any child) and their live-born children were taken into account while calculating this indicator.

Number of rooms in the dwelling – rooms include living rooms, bedrooms, children's rooms, offices, dining rooms, etc. If there is no permanent wall between the dining room and kitchen (or the wall has been dismantled), this room should be counted as a room, not as a kitchen. Parlour kitchens and privatised rooms in dormitory-type buildings are also counted as rooms. The room has an area of at least four square metres and height of at least two metres (for the most part).

The definition of a room does not include kitchens, vestibules, toilet rooms, bathrooms, pantries, saunas, cloakrooms or any other auxiliary premises, irrespective of their size. Furthermore, rooms that are used exclusively for business or work-related purposes (for instance, used only as workshops, studios, customer service rooms) are not considered to be rooms of the dwelling. However, if such room is used for both, work-related purposes and housework or hobbies, for instance, this room should be included in the number of rooms of the dwelling.

If a household lived permanently in an uncompleted residential building, the number of constructed rooms, not the planned number of rooms should be recorded.

The average number of rooms per inhabitant – the dwellings the area of which was known and persons living in these dwellings were taken into account while calculating this indicator.

Occupancy of dwelling – conventional dwellings were distributed by the occupancy as follows:

- Conventional dwelling with usual residents – dwelling which was the place of usual residence for at least one person at the moment of Census.

- Conventional dwelling without usual residents – dwelling which was not a place of usual residence of any person at the moment of Census (but temporary residents might have stayed there).

Occupationin case of an employed person his/her occupation at his/her main place of work was recorded during the period of 19–25 December 2011, in case of an unemployed person his/her occupation at his/her last main place of work was recorded (see “main place of work”).

Owner of dwelling – dwellings were distributed by the owner of dwelling as follows:

- State or local government – dwelling is owned by a state authority, state organisation or foundation, city, city district or rural municipality government.

- Resident of Estonia – the owner’s place of usual residence is in Estonia.

- Resident of foreign country – the owner’s place of usual residence is not in the Republic of Estonia.

- Other owner – the owner does not belong to aforementioned groups, e.g.:

- company (factory, bank, insurance company, real estate company, etc.; incl. companies in which the capital share of state or local government unit is less than 50%);

- self-employed person;

- non-profit association (e.g., a church);

- foundation;

- legal person governed by public law;

- agricultural association.

Person in compulsory military or community service (conscript) – a person who during the period of 19–25 December 2011 fulfilled the duty to serve in the Defence Forces by serving in the Defence Forces or by alternative service. Persons who have entered voluntary contractual active service and officers should not be noted as conscripts (they are salaried employees).

Persons having emigrated from Estonia – the Census fixed the persons having emigrated from Estonia since 2000 according to the statements of their close relatives living in Estonia. As not all emigrated persons had close relatives in Estonia (any more), the collected data are not total. It is also possible that some close relatives did not note the data due to the missing information necessary or for other reasons.

If the person has settled abroad on more than one occasion, the most recent year of leaving Estonia was noted.

Person's status in household – members of private households were distributed by their status in the household into persond who belong to some family nucleus ("spouse", "cohabitant", "lone parent", "child") and persons who do not belong to any family nucleus ("living alone", "other").

-  Spouse – person who has a legal spouse living in the same household.

-  Cohabiting partner – person who has a cohabiting partner in the same household (incl. in the same sex).

-  Lone parent – person who has child(ren) living in the same household, but who has no spouse or partner in consensual union. The child’s definition is given below.

-  Child – person (regardless of age and legal marital status) was considered to be a child belonging to the same family nucleus as his/her parents (parent) if he/she had not a spouse or cohabitant and own child(ren) in the same household. Both biological and adopted children were recorded as children, but not foster children.

-  Living alone – person living alone (i.e. one-person household).

-  Other – person who is not living alone but is not a member of any family nucleus.

In addition to members of private households, members of institutional households and homeless persons were distinguished (see “household”).

Place of birth – a place (country, administrative unit) where the person’s mother was a (permanent) resident at the time of the person’s birth. The data are presented according to the administrative division, which was valid for the period 29.11.2010–23.07.2011. For persons who were born abroad, the name of the country was recorded according to the state border valid at the time of the Census. The persons born before 1945 in Petseri (Pechory) county or in the former territory of the Republic of Estonia to the east of the Narva River, were considered born in Estonia. The place of birth of parents and grandparents was recorded similary.

Place of residence at the time of the 2000 Population Census – the usual place of residence of the person on 31 March 2000 (at the moment of Census of the 2000 Population Census). The data were collected with the 2011 Population Census questionnaire taking into account the definition of the place of residence of the Census (see “place of residence“).

Place of residence (permanent/usual place of residence) – is usually the region or settlement, where a person spends most of his/her daily rest and sleep time. It may differ from the registered place of residence. The place of residence was the place where the person has been living continuously for at least 12 months before the moment of Census or before 31 December 2011, or where he/she came to live before the moment of Census, and where he/she intended to stay for at least one year.

- Persons, who lived away from home due to work for more than 12 months but spent most of their days off with their households, were considered to be residents at the address of their household.

- Pupils of general education schools and secondary vocational education institutions, who resided outside home during their studies, were generally considered to be residents at the address of their household.

- Students of institutions of higher education and post-secondary vocational education residing outside their former homes during their studies were generally considered to have a place of residence at the address at which they lived during the studies, provided that they lived there for the majority of the study period. If the student has his or her own (new) family, his or her place of residence was the residence of his or her family.

- Households (incl. one-member households), who regularly lived at several addresses during a year, were considered to have the place of residence at the address where they spent the majority of the year.

- Persons residing in an institution (children's home, care home, custodial institution, etc.) were considered to be residents of that institution if they had been living in the institution for at least 12 months or more or who would stay there for more than a year.

- Persons in compulsory military or community service generally were considered to have their place of residence at the address where they lived before military service.

- The place of residence of the military and navy staff of the Republic of Estonia, diplomatic staff and their family members who live with them, and who were in a foreign country during the Census, their place of residence is in Estonia.

- If a person does not have a place of permanent residence, the place (dwelling, settlement) where he or she was at the moment of Census should be noted as his or her place of residence.

Population (usual resident population) – permanent residents present in the certain administrative unit or settlement at the moment of Census and residents temporarily absent from there for less than a year. Permanent residents do not include foreign military and navy staff and diplomatic staff and their family members living with them and who were in the Republic of Estonia during the Census.

Previous place of residence – was recorded for the person who had not continuously lived in the city, town or rural municipality of his/her place of usual residence at the time of the Census since birth. Continuous residence is not considered interrupted in case of:

- any absence with duration of less than 12 months;

- distant employment, if the person stays with his or her household for most of vacant days;

- absence due to studies at a general education school (upper secondary school, basic school, etc.) or a secondary vocational school;

- compulsory military service, irrespective of its duration, participation in a war or being a war-prisoner;

- diplomatic service in a foreign country or residence in a foreign country of military or navy personnel of the Republic of Estonia.

The place of residence, wherefrom the person arrived in the city, town or rural municipality (excl. city without municipal status and town) of his/her place of usual residence at the time of the Census. The previous place of residence in the same city or town where the usual place of residence was, as well as the place of residence in other village or small town of the same rural municipality was not taken into account. The Census time borders of the city, town or rural municipality apply; cities were also cities without municipal status.

If the person came to the current place of residence before 1945 from Pechory county or the former territory of the Republic of Estonia east of the Narva River, his/her previous place of residence were considered Estonia. For persons who arrived from abroad, the name of the country was recorded according to the state border valid at the time of the Census.

Religion – the name of the religion was noted for persons aged at least 15 who felt an affiliation to a religion (denomination). At the same time the person did not have to be a member of a church or congregation. In addition, it was irrelevant whether the person had been baptised, whether he or she went to church regularly or was a member of any other non-Christian association. Answering the questions about religion was voluntary.

Rural settlements – small towns and villages.

Secondary place of residence – only the secondary place of residence located outside the city or rural municipality of the person’s place of usual residence and where the person lived at least three months (incl. non-consecutive days) in total during the year was taken into consideration. The secondary place of residence could also be a place, where one could not live throughout a year (e.g., a summer house). A secondary place of residence was not a dwelling where the person did not actually live, even though he or she owned it. The so-called mobile places of residence were not taken into account either (e.g. in case of sailors and ship personnel).

If a person lived at several other addresses besides the place of usual residence, the secondary place of residence was the one where the person spent the longest time, and the location of this dwelling and the time spent there during the year were noted.

Size of household – the number of usual residents of the household.

Source of subsistence (main source of subsistence) – any monetary income or any other resources received (food, shelter, heating, etc.), which was necessary for the coping of the person in 2011.

If the person considered several sources of subsistence equally important for coping and could not decide, which source of subsistence is the main one, the source positioned higher on the list of options was noted here. The Census collected data on the sources of subsistence of persons at least 15 years of age. The source of subsistence for children aged less than 15 was generally considered the option “maintained by other persons”, except for children living in institutions (e.g. children’s homes), whose source of subsistence was recorded “maintained by institution”.

- Wages, earnings – remuneration for work, which is paid in money or in kind (food, heating, etc.) on the basis of an employment contract, a contract for services, the Public Service Act or an oral agreement with an employer; any compensations for work (incl. occasional work, unofficial work), including fees, payments for contractual services, bonuses, redundancy payments, payments for piece-work, gratuities, commissions or a percentage of turnover as agreed with the employer. Earnings also include stipends or other payments received for a specific job, research or project.

- Entrepreneurial income, income from farming – income from production, intermediation or business activities, in which the respondent is an active party. It is irrelevant whether the company has been registered. This also includes self-employed persons. In addition, the category includes production of agricultural products, timber, pelt, etc., for the purpose of sale.

- Pension – old-age pension, national pension, pension for incapacity for work, survivor’s or any other pension. Survivor’s pension should only be noted as the source of subsistence of the person who is the beneficiary of the pension. In tables the distribution “other pension” includes all types of pensions except pension for incapacity for work.

- Maintained by other persons – was noted for persons, such as children, who were maintained by household members or other persons (parents or relatives living elsewhere, etc.). This answer was also noted if a significant portion of the subsistence of the person comes from support payments (alimony).

- Support, scholarship, benefit – child benefits and family allowances, parental benefit, subsistence benefit, unemployment insurance benefit, unemployment allowance, other amounts paid through the Unemployment Insurance Fund, education allowance, stipends instituted by the Estonian government, local government, foreign country or an individual (except stipends or payments received for a specific job, research or project – this was noted as wages and salaries), or any other types of support, such as those paid to freelance artists and writers (through the Cultural Endowment or another fund). This category also includes benefits in kind. Child benefits and family allowances were only noted as the source of subsistence of the parent or guardian to whom the benefit or allowance had been granted.

- Maintained by institution – was noted in case of residents of children’s homes, care homes, etc., conscripts serving in the Defence Forces, imprisoned persons in custodial institutions, monks and nuns in monasteries, etc. This option was noted in case of institutions that offer full maintenance financed by the state or a local government. If a person paid a part of maintenance costs (e.g., in a retirement home), then the selection of the answer had to be based on the fact whether the person or the institution covered the larger portion of the cost.

- Other source of subsistence – income not listed above. This includes, for example:

- property income or income from capital – income from the rental of property (immovable or movable property, such as a house, apartment or vehicle); interest on loans or deposits; dividends on shares, entrepreneurship, business or another field of activity in which the respondent is not an active party;

- loans, deposits, savings, sales of property – study loans or any other loans for short-term use. This option includes living off one’s savings and subsistence from the sale of shares, fund units, immovable or movable property, i.e., realisation of previously acquired assets;

- personal auxiliary household – subsistence from the production of agricultural products (vegetables, horticultural products, domestic animals, etc.) for own consumption. This does not include production of agricultural or similar products for the purpose of sale (i.e., entrepreneurial income, income from farming);

- awards, insurance payments, compensations for damage, cultural or scientific awards;

- begging and subsisting on waste (gathering and sale of waste and empty bottles, etc.).

Student – a person aged three or over who is acquiring general, vocational or professional education in the formal educational system, i.e. in an institution of general, vocational or higher education or in a pre-school institution. Full-time studies (day, evening, external study) as well as correspondence courses are included. Persons who temporarily do not attend school (academic leave, free semester etc.) but who have preserved formal connections with the educational institution as at the census moments are also considered to be students. The data on the students (level of education being pursued, location of educational institution) have been received from the Estonian Education Information System (EHIS). These data do not include students studying in foreign countries, except students studying abroad for a short period as part of student exchange programmes (in the tables, these students are considered to be studying in Estonia).

Students are divided by level of education being pursued as follows:

- Pre-primary education – children who attend a preschool institution (nursery school, kindergarten, kindergarten for children with disabilities, kindergarten-primary school). Children who study in a school class at a preschool institution or take a preparatory course for preschool children are not included here.

- Primary education – persons who study in grades 1 to 6 of an institution of general education (primary school, basic school, secondary school, gymnasium, etc.).

- Lower secondary education – persons who study in grades 7 to 9 of an institution of general education.

- Upper secondary education – persons who study in grades 10 to 12 of an institution of general education.

- Vocational education after lower secondary education – persons who are engaged in vocational or vocational secondary education where lower secondary education (i.e. basic education) is generally required for admittance. It also includes a small number of students without any requirements for previous education upon admittance (e.g. vocational education for children with special needs and for persons without lower secondary education).

- Vocational education after upper secondary education – persons who study in a vocational educational institution which requires completed upper secondary education for admittance.

- First stage of higher education – persons who are:

- studying according to a programme of professional higher education;

- taking a Bachelor’s course.

- Master’s degree or equivalent – persons who are taking a Master’s course at an institution of higher education (incl. internship).

- Doctorate – persons who are taking a doctoral course at a an institution of higher education (incl. residency).

Tenure status of dwelling – households and household members were distributed by the tenure status of dwelling as follows:

-  Owner - at least one member of the household is the owner or co-owner of the dwelling. This includes members of an apartment association.

-  Tenant - the household has a tenancy contract or a subletting contract for this dwelling or has an oral agreement with the owner for renting the dwelling. This option was noted only if, in addition to utility costs, the household also pays rent to the owner for use of the dwelling.

-  Other form of tenure - no member of the household is the owner of the dwelling and the household does not pay rent to the owner for use of the dwelling (but may pay for utilities).

If the tenure status of dwelling is published in population tables, all members of a household are considered to have the same tenure status (e.g. if one member of the household is the legal owner of the dwelling, all members of that household are considered owners).

Time of immigration/returning was recorded for the person who had not continuously lived in the city, town or rural municipality of his/her place of usual residence at the time of the Census since birth (see also “previous place of residence“).Tables which include international migrants record the time of immigration to Estonia from a foreign country. It was not relevant if immigration took place to the usual place of residence at the time of the Census or some previous place of residence in Estonia. Tables including the last migration of the population (from a foreign country to Estonia as well as within Estonia over a border of a settlement unit), the time of immigration to a city, town or rural municipality (excl. city without municipal status or town) of his usual place of residence at the time of the Census is recorded.

If a person had settled in the place of usual residence at the time of the Census or in Estonia in more than one occasion, the most recent year of settling was noted.

Type of building – buildings containing conventional dwellings were distributed as follows:

- Apartment building – a building where at least half of the total area is used for apartments. An apartment building usually has at least three apartments, which can normally be accessed through a shared corridor or stairway. The definition of apartment building also includes former dormitories where the rooms have been privatised.

- One-family dwelling (private house) – a residential building, which has been built for one family and has not been divided into apartments (i.e., it comprises one dwelling). This also includes farmhouses and former summer cottages, which have been adapted or converted for all-year-round habitation. Several households may live in one private house.

- Other small residential buildings are:

- a semi-detached house – consists of two connected semi-detached house boxes, built on one lot or on two neighbouring lots, where both have separate direct exits to outside;

- a terraced house – comprises at least three connected terraced house boxes where every box has a separate exit that leads directly outside;

- a private house includes two dwellings (apartments) with separate entrances.

- Non-residential building with dwelling(s) – a building where less than half of the usable area is used for habitation. This category includes, for instance, office buildings, shops, schools and other buildings with at least one dwelling (apartment).

Type of institution - institutional households were divided as follows:

-  Social welfare institution (substitute home, care home, etc.):

-  child welfare institution - substitute home or children’s home, SOS Children’s Village, home for small children, substitute home for children with special needs, youth home, residential educational institution, substitute family home;

-  mixed-care social welfare institution - institutions that provide multiple welfare services, e.g., welfare institutions that serve both elderly people with coping problems and people with special needs (irrespective of age);

-  adult general and special welfare institutions (incl. home for the aged).

-  Educational institution - this category includes educational institutions that provide full maintenance for its pupils. An educational institution may be a person’s place of usual residence only if he or she can reside there all-year-round. This includes, for instance, special schools for children with behavioural problems (Tapa and Kaagvere special schools). As a rule, boarding schools are not included in this category.

-  Health care institution – hospital, clinic, (medical) care centre, rehabilitation centre and other inpatient care institution.

-  Religious institution – e.g., a monastery.

-  Penal institution – prison, preliminary investigation prison, detention house and cell, the expulsion centre of the Police and Border Guard Board in Harku.

-  Other institution – e.g., a training centre of the Defence Forces.

In tables the data are published for usual resident of institutional households (see “place of residence”).

Unemployed – a person aged 15 years and older in the case of whom the following three conditions are fulfilled at the same time during the week preceding the Census (19–25 December 2011):

- he/she was without work (did not work or was not temporarily absent from work);

- he/she had been actively seeking work in December 2011;

- he/she was ready to start working within two weeks.

Unemployed persons who had worked previously were in the Census asked the data about their last main place of work and the year they were last employed. Previous employment was employment which lasted for at least three months. Occasional work, summer employment or any other short-term employment relationships which lasted less than three months were not considered previous employment.

Unknown – the table's row or column "unknown" includes cases where the answer has not been recorded in the questionnaire or the answer that has been recorded is ambiguous.

Urban settlements – cities, cities without municipal status and towns.

METHODOLOGY

DATA PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

Official statistics are disseminated in a form that precludes the possibility of direct or indirect identification of a person. For that reason, statistical disclosure control methods are used to protect small values in frequency tables, by modifying, summarising or perturbing the data. The aim of statistical disclosure control methods is to ensure that the statistical output provides valuable information while protecting the confidentiality of personal data.

The following principles are used in the dissemination of the data of the 2011 Population and Housing Census:

1.  Pursuant to subsection 35 (7) of the Official Statistics Act, disclosure control methods are not applied to the following variables: place of residence, sex and age.

2.  The statistical disclosure control method of controlled rounding is applied to other variables if the place of residence is specified on a detailed level in the table (small local government units and settlements).

Controlled rounding results in the upwards or downwards adjustment of real values, preserving additivity of the table as much as possible. Due to rounding, the published total may differ from the sum of subdivisions and the value of the same indicator may differ slightly in different tables.

FINDING THE NATIVE POPULATION AND THREE GENERATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-ORIGIN POPULATION

The table below presents the combinations of answers of the person’s himself/herself, his/her parent’s and grandparent’s country of birth on the basis of which in the 2011 Population and Housing Census the native population and the first, second and third generation of foreign-origin population were determined.

If a part of information necessary for determining the native or foreign-origin population was missing, the existing most probable data were used to make a decision.

No

Country of birth of the person

Country of birth of parents

Country of birth of grandparents

Group

1

Estonia

For at least one Estonia

For at least one Estonia

Native population

2

Estonia

For at least one Estonia

For all a foreign country

Third generation

3

Estonia

For at least one Estonia

For all unknown

Native population

4

Estonia

For both a foreign country*

For at least one Estonia

Second generation

5

Estonia

For both a foreign country*

For all a foreign country

Second generation

6

Estonia

For both a foreign country*

For all unknown

Second generation

7

Estonia

For both unknown

For at least one Estonia

Native population

8

Estonia

For both unknown

For all a foreign country

Third generation

9

Estonia

For both unknown

For all unknown

Origin unknown

10

Foreign country

For at least one Estonia

For at least one Estonia

Native population

11

Foreign country

For at least one Estonia

For all a foreign country

Third generation

12

Foreign country

For at least one Estonia

For all unknown

Native population

13

Foreign country

For both a foreign country*

For at least one Estonia

First generation

14

Foreign country

For both a foreign country*

For all a foreign country

First generation

15

Foreign country

For both a foreign country*

For all unknown

First generation

16

Foreign country

For both unknown

For at least one Estonia

Native population

17

Foreign country

For both unknown

For all a foreign country

Third generation

18

Foreign country

For both unknown

For all unknown

Origin unknown

19

Unknown

For at least one Estonia

For at least one Estonia

Native population

20

Unknown

For at least one Estonia

For all a foreign country

Third generation

21

Unknown

For at least one Estonia

For all unknown

Native population

22

Unknown

For both a foreign country*

For at least one Estonia

Second generation

23

Unknown

For both a foreign country*

For all a foreign country

Second generation

24

Unknown

For both a foreign country*

For all unknown

Second generation

25

Unknown

For both unknown

For at least one Estonia

Origin unknown

26

Unknown

For both unknown

For all a foreign country

Third generation

27

Unknown

For both unknown

For all unknown

Origin unknown

 

*It also includes the occasion when one parent was born in a foreign country and the country of birth of the other is unknown.

LIFE EXPECTANCY AND DISABILITY FREE LIFE EXPECTANCY

Life expectancy is calculated using the sex-age distribution based on the population census and the official death statistics of vital statistics offices. Based on these data, the following indicators are calculated for each five-year age group: the number of survivors in a birth generation that has attained the given age, probability of dying, person-years lived and average life expectancy.

Disability free life expectancy is calculated on the basis of the share of healthy persons in each age group, which has been determined using the census results. Following international recommendations, persons without limitations of everyday activities are considered to be in good health, i.e. healthy. The calculation process is similar to the process described above, but the number of healthy persons in a given age group is used instead of the number of persons in that age group.

CLASSIFICATIONS

International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO 08

International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO 08 is available on the web site of Statistics Estonia www.stat.ee/metadata under the heading “Classifications”.

Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements 2010, version 3 (EHAK 2010 v3)

Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements is available on the web site of Statistics Estonia www.stat.ee/metadata under the heading “Classifications”.

Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements 2010, version 3 (29.11.2010-23.07.2011) is available under the heading “Old versions”

http://metaweb.stat.ee/classificator_version_list.htm?id=419098&siteLanguage=en

 

Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2

Statistical Classification of Regional Units of Estonia (EPS) based on Nomenclature of Territorial Units of Statistics (NUTS)

According to the NUTS level 3, Estonia is divided as follows:

EE001

Northern Estonia

Harju County

EE004

Western Estonia

Hiiu, Lääne, Pärnu and Saare Counties

EE006

Central Estonia

Järva, Lääne-Viru and Rapla Counties

EE007

Northeastern Estonia

Ida-Viru County

EE008

Southern Estonia

Jõgeva, Põlva, Tartu, Valga, Viljandi and Võru Counties

CONTACT PERSON

Diana Beltadze

Project Leader of Population and Housing Census

Tel +372 625 9361

diana.beltadze@stat.ee

Updated: 22.10.2013