Age person's age has been given in full years as at 31 March 2000. The age of children under 1 year of age is 0 years.

Area of the dwelling the total floor area of rooms and secondary rooms (kitchen, hall, toilet, pantry, interspace, bathroom, storage room, veranda, built-in cupboards). The area of balconies and terraces (i.e. open spaces), cellars, garages, corridors and other public rooms was not included in the total area of dwellings in apartment buildings.
The average floor area of dwellings is obtained by dividing the total area of dwellings by number of dwellings which area is known.

Branch of economic activity the main orientation of manufacturing/economic activities of person or main employer.

Building construction permanently connected to the ground, enclosed within external walls, covered by roof and containing rooms. Census covered the buildings containing conventional dwellings.

Child in the household person (regardless of age and legal marital status) with no partner and no child(dren) who has usual residence in one-family household or multi-family household of at least one of the parents. Both biological and adopted children were recorded as as children, but not foster children. In some tables (see footnotes to tables), in addition to abovementioned, all 18-years old persons with no parent (and no partner or child(ren)) in the same household are also defined as children. In non-family households with two or more members, persons younger than 18 years of age are also defined as children.
In households not comprising family nucleus with two or more members (Non-family household) persons younger than 18 years of age is also defined as a child

Citizenship the country, of which he/she is a citizen, was recorded. If the person had several citizenships, it was possible to record up to two countries. "Citizenship undetermined" was recorded for persons who had an "aliens passport", and also for persons who asserted that they had not received the document and did not know their citizenship. For children, who had a passport or a certificate of citizenship, the citizenship was recorded according to that document. In the case of other children it was proceeded from the following:

  1. the child was considered an Estonian citizen if at least one of his/her parents was an Estonian citizen at the time of the birth of the child (if father had died before that, then at the time of the death of father);
  2. the child was considered a citizen of a foreign country if the parent was a citizen of this foreign country. If the child acquired citizenship of two countries by birth, both citizenships were recorded;
  3. in the remaining cases the child's citizenship was undetermined.
If in the case of persons with double citizenship only one citizenship has been presented, the country standing ahead in the following list was taken into account: Estonia, Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, the other country denoted first, the other country denoted secondly.

Cohabitant person who is not legally married but who in his/her opinion has a marriage relationship and common place of residence and common household with his/her partner. Only relationships between partners of opposite sex were considered.

Comfort characteristics availability of kitchen (kitchenette), water supply system, sewage disposal system, hot water, bath (shower) sauna, flush toilet, electricity, gas, central and electric heating in the dwelling. If the dwelling was equipped with some type of facilities (comfort characteristics) but it had been switched off due to an emergency, at the request made by inhabitants or because the inhabitants were unable to pay for the service, it was still regarded as available. However, if these facilities had been switched off for a longer time (one year and longer) because of the termination of supplying them with energy (for example, the boiler house of the former co-operative in the central settlement is no longer operating), then this type of facility is missing (the answer was "no").

Command of foreign languages language(s) which the person could read, write or speak was (were) recorded. Only those languages could be recorded which the person commanded besides mother tongue. The variants for answers were: "Estonian", "Russian", "English", "German", "French", "Finnish", "Swedish", "Latvian", "native language", "other language(s)", "no command of other languages". The variant "native language" was privileged among others - if the native language coincided with one of the languages designated in the questionnaire (e.g. Estonian), the note "native language" was preferred. If the native language had not been designated in the table, the answer was divided between other languages, taking into consideration the nationality of the person.
The person was considered to have a command of the language if his/her knowledge of the designated language enabled him/her to cope in familiar situations of language use in reading, writing or speaking (also listening). The ability to express oneself in familiar everyday communication situations, to understand a clear talk on everyday topics, to understand an overall content of a simple text and to compile short texts on everyday life was considered a sufficient level of knowledge of the language in order to answer in affirmative. If some ability was missing but another one was significantly exceeding the said requirements, then the answer could still be "yes". For example, a person could be considered as knowing the language if he/she

  1. spoke quite fluently but could not write;
  2. could read special literature in foreign language but could not speak it;
  3. understood radio/television programmes in foreign languages but could not speak or write.
Answering the question on command of foreign languages was voluntary.

Composition of household private households were distributed by composition into three groups - non-family households, one-family households and multi-family households. Each group was divided further into sub-groups (the level of detail varies in different tables)

Conscript a person who served in the armed forces, in the navy or at borders of the Republic of Estonia, as well as in active compulsory service considered equal to military service. Students in military educational institutions were recorded as conscripts. Officers and persons staying overtime in military service were regarded as employed.

Construction time of building the period, which includes the year of official completion of the building (taken into exploitation). If building had undergone reconstruction, extension etc. still the period containing the year of first completion of he building was recordes as construction time (excluding the case when the building had been completely destroyed and then rebuilt). "Uncompleted building" was recorded in the case of a building some rooms of which were already used for permanent habitation although the local government had not given the permission to use it.

Country of birth was recorded according to national boundaries at the beginning of 2000. For the persons who were born before 1945 on the area between the national boundary of the Republic of Estonia and temporary control line (the part of Viru county beyond Narva River and the part of Petseri county) Russia was recorded as the country of birth. If the population has been divided into persons born in Estonia and persons born in foreign countries, the persons whose country of birth was unknown but it was obvious that they were born in foreign country (e.g. "Central Asia"etc) were also included in the latter group.

Couple includes both legally married and cohabiting couples (male-female relationship).

De facto marital status persons aged 15 years and older and as well as persons whose age was unknown were distributed by the existence of the partner into two groups.

De facto population permanent residents present in a certain administrative unit or settlement at the Census moment and in addition residents having temporarily lived there for less than one year.

Disability (long-term illness or disability) person was considered to have a disability if at 31 March 2000 he/she suffered from some illness or disability which has lasted (or probably will last) for at least one year and which has been determined by the medical commission of experts. If the disabled person needed permanent help in everyday life (when eating, bathing, dressing, using the toilet, etc.) the answer "You need assistance in taking care of yourself" was recorded. Assistance meant only the help provided by other persons, not technical aids (wheelchair, crutches, etc.). The need of assistance was recorded only if it was caused by disability, not by age (babies, old persons). The question about the need of assistance was not asked the persons who had no disability.

Duration of temporary absence period (in months) from the person's departure from his/her permanent place of residence up to the moment of Census. In the case of short-term (less than one month) absence, one month was recorded as a period of absence. Pupils of general education establishments living in the study area were regarded as temporarily absent from their parents' place of residence since the beginning of the school year.

Duration of temporary presence period (in months) from the arrival of the temporarily present person in a certain administrative unit or settlement up to the moment of Census. In the case of short-term (less than one month) presence, one month was recorded as a period of presence. Pupils of general education establishments living in the study area were regarded as temporarily present since the beginning of the school year.

Dwelling family dwelling, apartment or other separate room suitable for all-the-year-round habitation. In addition rooms which were not designed for permanent habitation were considered to be dwellings if at the Census moment at least one person was residing there permanently. Dwellings were classified as conventional dwellings, non-conventional dwellings and accommodation rooms.

Economically active population (labour force) persons (aged 15 years and older and persons whose age is unknown) who were considered employed or unemployed or who were conscripts in the week preceding the Census (20-26 March 2000).

Economically inactive population persons aged 15 years and older who did not want to or could not work for some reason but who were not considered as unemployed or who were not conscripts in the week preceding the Census (20-26 March 2000) as well as all under 15-year-old persons.

Education education as such means the educational attainment. The educational attainment of persons is determined by the highest educational institution or grade completed in the formal educational system (officially recognised and organisationally ensured programs), i.e. in institutions of general education, of vocational education and higher education; education that is uncompleted does not raise its level. Distinction is made between education completed in general education institution (secondary school, gymnasium, basic school) or general education and vocational or professional education (education attained in a vocational or professional secondary education institution or higher school). The level of vocational or professional education received in a foreign country should be determined similar to determining the educational attainment completed in Estonia.

In case of presenting less detailed classification of education, the following levels have been aggregated:

Employed person who during the week preceding the Census (20-26 March 2000)

  1. worked for payment under contract or according to an agreement, including:
    - work for payment in kind (for food, housing, fuels, etc.);
    - work the payment for which was given in the form of royalties, contract payments or premium pays, as well as payment for piecework, tips, commission or as percentage of sales in compliance with the agreement made with the employer;
  2. worked in own enterprise or farm, private practice;
  3. worked for pay or without pay in an enterprise or farm of another member of the household;
  4. worked part-time;
  5. dealt with activity providing illegal income;
  6. was temporarily absent from work.
All persons who had worked at least one hour or were temporarily absent from work during the week preceding the Census (20-26 March 2000) were regarded as having worked. If actual working did not coincide with the formal work relationship, then it was proceeded from the actual working.

Employment status person's employment status at his/her main place of work. Employed persons are distributed by the employment status into six groups:
Salaried employees - persons who
- in the week preceding the Census were engaged in full- or part-time job for the institution, enterprise or any other employer, for which they were remunerated either by money or in kind (it is insignificant whether the place of work was officially registered or not
- had a contractual relationship with the employer (employment contract, contract of agreement, work relationship based on the Public Service Act, oral agreement with the employer) but were temporarily absent from work.
Officers and persons earning their living with casual work were also regarded as salaried employees.

Ethnic nationality the ethnic nationality named by the person himself/herself was recorded. The person had the right to consider himself/herself to be a member of that ethnic nationality who he/she felt to be most closely connected to ethnically and culturally. Parents determined the ethnic nationality of their children. If the child's mother and father were of different ethnic nationalities and the parents had difficulties in determining the ethnic nationality of their child, the ethnic nationality of the mother was preferred.

Family nucleus (family) family nucleus consists of two or more persons living in the same household who are related as husband and wife, as cohabiting partners or as parent and child. Each household member can be a member of only one family nucleus. Family nucleus can be:

  1. married couple or cohabiting couple without children (couple without children),
  2. married couple or cohabiting couple with children (couple with children, children need not be common)
  3. lone parent with child(ren)
Person (regardless of age and legal marital status) was considered to be a child belonged to the same family nucleus as his/her parents (parent) if he/she had not a partner (spouse, cohabitant) and/or child (children) in the household. Both as biological and adopted children were recorded as a children, foster children were not.
Family nucleus cannot consist of more than two successive generations. If the household comprised three (or more) generations with parental relationship between them (child, his/her mother and grandmother) the family nucleus was formed of the two youngest generation. In case of competitive relationship
  1. marital/cohabital relationship was preferred to parental relationship,
  2. in case of parental relationship the relationship of younger generations was preferred

Household persons who live together at the same address and are linked by a common use of all available household facilities (shared budget and shared food). A person living alone is also considered a separate household. Relationship or kinship between household members was not necessarily required. If a person shared a dwelling with some other person but bought food himself/herself and had a separate budget, then he/she was considered a separate household. Persons in welfare, health and other institutions as well as persons in compulsory military service and in penal institutions and maintained by the mentioned institution were considered an institutional household.

Legal marital status persons aged 15 years and older and persons whose age was unknown were distributed into the following four groups:

Length of working week time in hours actually worked during typical working week of person over the longer period at all places of work.
Length of working week at the main place of work - time in hours actually worked during typical working week of person over the longer period at the main place of work.

Main place of work the place of work where the person worked for most of the time.

Main source of subsistence money or other income (food, clothes, accommodation, housing, fuel, etc.) received which is significant with respect to coping of the person. The main source of subsistence of the last 12 months was recorded. If a person considered two sources of subsistence as important for his/her coping, then both were recorded: the most relevant was recorded as first and the other as second. The order of importance was determined by the person himself/herself. If a relevant change, regarding the source of subsistence, had taken place recently and it had probably lasted for a longer time (the person retired, took on a permanent job, stayed on maternity leave, started service in the armed forces, etc.), then the source of subsistence which had been recently the most significant one for the person and which had probably remain the main source of subsistence also in the future was recorded as the main source of subsistence.

Moment of Census the date and the time fixing the data collected by the Census. The moment of Census of the 2000 Population Census was on 31 March 2000 at 00.00.

Mother tongue the language that was the first language spoken in early childhood and which is usually the language that the person commands best. Parents told the mother tongue of their children. If parents had difficulties in determining the child's mother tongue, the language most currently spoken in the household was recorded. For deaf-mutes the language they read and wrote or which their household members or persons with whom they communicated most often spoke was recorded as their mother tongue. Mentally disabled non-speaking persons were also treated as deaf-mutes.

Non-studying person persons aged 3 years and older and persons whose age is unknown who do not go to a pre-primary children's institution, or do not study in institutions of general, vocational or higher education. Also persons, who attend preparatory courses for children of pre-school age or attend in-service training or re-training courses, training for the unemployed or courses for own interest (informal learning), are included here.

Number of children given birth to the total number of children born alive (regardless of whether they are living or dead at the time of the Census) of women aged 15 years and older and of women whose age is unknown. Adopted children and foster children were not taken into account. The tabels which cover women who have given birth to a child by age include also the women who were younger than 15 at the Census moment.

Number of rooms in the dwelling room is a living room, bedroom, nursery, study, attic, dining room, etc. If a permanent wall between a room and a kitchen was missing (for example, it had been torn down) the kitchen was regarded as part of the room. Kitchen, entrance hall, toilet, bathroom, pantry, sauna rooms and other secondary rooms were not counted as rooms. Kitchenette and a room in a building of a hostel type (if the room was used separately as a dwelling) were counted as rooms. Rooms that were used only for business or work purposes did not count as rooms.

Occupancy of dwelling conventional dwellings were distributed by the occupancy as follows:

Occupation occupation of the person at the person's main place of work (according to person's main work tasks).

Owner of dwelling conventional dwellings were distributed by the owner of dwelling as follows:

Parent person who or whose partner (spouse, cohabitant) has a child in the same household.

Parents' country of birth the country according to the division of countries at the beginning of the year 2000. For persons who were born before 1945 on the area between the national boundary of the Republic of Estonia and temporary control line (the part of Viru county beyond Narva River and the part of Petseri county), Estonia was recorded as the country of birth.

Person's status in the household residents of private households were distributed by their status in the household into persons who belong to some family nucleus ("child", "spouse", "cohabitant", "lone parent") and persons who do not belong to any family nucleus ("person living alone", "other status").

Place of birth mother's place of residence at the time the person was born according to the administrative division at the beginning of 2000. For persons who were born abroad, the country was recorded according to national boundaries at the beginning of 2000. The persons who were born before 1945 on the area between the national boundary of the Republic of Estonia and temporary control line (the part of Viru county beyond Narva River and the part of Petseri county) Russia was recorded as the country of birth but they were not included in the list of the immigrants into Estonia.

Place of residence (permanent/usual place of residence) administrative unit or settlement, where the dwelling in which the person lived permanently at the time of the Census, is located. The place of residence at the time of the 1989 Population Census (12 January 1989) was recorded according to the administrative division valid at the beginning of 2000. If the person's permanent place of residence was outside the boundaries of the present Republic of Estonia the name of the country according to the boundaries valid in 2000 was recorded. The permanent place of residence was the place where the person intended to live or where he/she had lived at least one year (in 1989 at least 6 months). For the person who had more than one place of residence the permanent place of residence was the place where his/her household was living. The permanent place of residence of university students and of pupils of professional secondary or other vocational education institutions living in the study area was the dwelling where the studies took place (not the place of residence of parents). The permanent place of residence of persons, who had lived in an institution (social welfare institutions, prisons) for more than a year or who would stay there for more than a year, was the institution. (in 1989 the time limit was 6 months.) The permanent place of residence of persons in military service was the place where they departed from for military service. The permanent place of residence of diplomatic staff of diplomatic missions and consular posts of the Republic of Estonia and their household members who were in a foreign country during the Census was their place of residence in Estonia. The permanent place of residence of homeless persons was the settlement where they were enumerated.

Place of work (address) the actual location of the main place of work / employer where person worked for most of the time in the week preceding the Census.

Population (usual resident population) permanent residents present in the certain administrative unit or settlement at the moment of Census and residents temporarily absent from there for less than a year.

Population of cities population of city municipalities. Population of cities without municipal status has been included in the population of rural municipalities.

Population of rural municipalities population living in settlements of rural municipalities (cities without municipal status, towns, small towns and villages).

Religious affiliation persons aged 15 years and older and persons whose age is unknown were distributed by their religious affiliation as follows:

  1. follower of a particular faith - a person who confesses some faith. The person did not necessarily have to be a member of a church or of a congregation, and it was unimportant if a person was baptised or not. In the case of this answer it was specified which faith the person regarded as his/her own. Only one faith could be recorded. The answers in which the subdivision of a religion was not specified were not recorded (e.g. "I believe in God", "own faith", etc.);
  2. person is considered to have no religious affiliation when he/she does not deny the faith but does not regard any as his/hers;
  3. atheist - a person who knowingly denies the existence of a God and religion;
  4. cannot define the affiliation - a person cannot determine his/her religion;
  5. refuses to answer - a person is not willing to answer the question.
Answering the questions about religion was voluntary.

Resident in an institution person who at the Census moment had been living in an institution for more than a year or who stayed there for more than a year.

Size of household the number of usual residents of the household.

Studying person person aged 3 years and older and person whose age is unknown and who is acquiring general, vocational or professional education in a formal educational system (officially recognised and organisationally ensured programs), i.e. in institutions of general education, of vocational education, of higher education or in pre-school institutions. Also full-time studies (day, evening) or correspondence courses should be registered, as well as those, in the case of which the person does not attend school temporarily, but the formal connections with the educational institution have been preserved (academic leave, free semester, etc.).
Studying persons are distributed by level of study as follows:

Temporarily absent population persons who had been continuously absent from their permanent place of residence for less than one year and who at 00.00 on the eve of 31 March 2000 were:

  1. in dwellings outside the city or rural municipality of their permanent place of residence;
  2. in hotels and other accommodation establishments, in health care, social welfare and other similar institutions, regardless of the location of the institution (whether in the same city, rural municipality or elsewhere);
  3. in hostels of general education establishments or elsewhere outside home in connection with studies (except students in higher, professional secondary or vocational education establishments);
  4. in military barracks, etc. in connection with compulsory service in the armed forces or training for reserve or alternative service;
  5. detained in a police authority or under preliminary investigation in penal institutions;
  6. imprisoned (term of punishment less than a year);
  7. passengers on international coaches, trains, aircraft and ships;
  8. in a foreign country.
Persons, who at the Census moment were not in their permanent place of residence but were in another dwelling in the same city or rural municipality, who were outside the boundaries of the local government of their permanent place of residence where it was not possible to enumerate them or where the enumeration is not provided for (at work, travelling, on the way to somewhere, etc.), were not regarded as temporarily absent.

Temporarily present population persons who had been living in a certain administrative unit or settlement for less than on year and who have permanent place of residence elsewhere.

Temporarily resident population in Estonia permanent residents of foreign countries who were in Estonia at the moment of Census.

Temporary resident in an institution person who at the Census moment had been living in an institution for less than a year or who stayed there for less than a year.

Tenure status households were distributed by the tenure status as follows:

Time of immigration the year when the person settled permanently in Estonia. If the person has settled in Estonia more than once, the year of the last arrival was recorded.

Type of building buildings were distributed as follows:

Type of household households were devided into private households, institutional households and households of homeless persons.

Unemployed person in the case of whom the following three conditions are fulfilled at the same time during the week preceding the Census (20-26 March 2000):

  1. he/she was unemployed,
  2. he/she had been actively seeking work during the past four weeks,
  3. in the case of finding work he/she was ready to start working within two weeks.
Active job seeking comprised all steps taken to find a job or start entrepreneurship (e.g. registration at a public or any other employment exchange, meeting possible employers, placing or answering newspaper advertisements, applications to employers, acquiring information about free workplaces from acquaintances or relatives, going to places of recruitment of temporary labour (markets, etc.), registration of an enterprise/farm, applying for a permit or a loan to start activity, looking for land, rooms, equipment, employees, etc. to establish own enterprise/farm). Waiting for an earlier agreed work to start was also considered to be equal to job seeking.

Unknown the table's row or column "unknown" includes cases where the answer has not been recorded on the questionnaire or the answer that has been recorded is ambiguous.