DEFINITIONS

Area intensity – the material flow indicator which reflects the pressure of the physical economy on its natural environment. Area intensity is expressed as ratio of domestic extraction and total land area.

Biomass – biomass from agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting and other activity (apiculture and gathering of forest berries and chanterelles) has been taken into account.

Biomass from agriculture – biomass from agriculture harvest, biomass from agriculture by-products of harvest used as forage, fodder crops and biomass from grazing of agricultural animals.

Direct material input – the material flow indicator which represents quantity of materials really used in domestic economy. In addition to used domestic extraction the imported materials were included in direct material input.

Direct material productivity – indicator expressing the productivity of all used materials (extracted from domestic environment and as well as imports). Direct material productivity is calculated as ratio of GDP and direct material input. GDP in chain-linked volume, reference year 2015 is used.

Dissipative losses of products – estimations of air emissions of particles due to abrasion of tyres and breaks and erosion of roads as well as leakages during transport and storage of fuels have been taken into account.

Dissipative use of products – materials dispersed into the environment as a result of product use.

Dissipative use on agricultural land – quantity of mineral fertilizers, farmyard manure, sewage sludge, compost, pesticides expressed as total quantity of used formulations and seeds used by agricultural holdings.

Dissipative use on roads – estimated quantities of used de-icing substances sand and granite grave are included in this indicator.

Domestic extraction (use) – materials, which are moved or extracted from the environment during economic activity, which were used in production or consumption, process (except excavated earthen materials (including soil)).

Domestic material consumption – material flow indicator which measures the total amount of material directly used in domestic economy (except excavated earthen materials (including soil)). Exported materials were not included. Imported materials is included. Domestic material consumption reflects the potential quantity of emissions and wastes which might be released into domestic environment.

Resource productivity – indicator expressing the productivity of domestic material consumption. Resource productivity is calculated as ratio of GDP and domestic material consumption. GDP in chain-linked volume, reference year 2015 is used.

Emissions and wastes – quantity of emitted air pollutants, quantity of pollutants in waste water discharged into natural water bodies and quantity of land filled wastes are included in this indicator.

Emissions into the air – air emissions of the following air pollutants have been listed: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), dinitrogen oxide (N2O), nitrous oxides (NOX), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and particles.

Emissions into the water – total quantity of pollutants released into natural water bodies with waste water.

Fossil fuels – oil shale and peat. Quantities of oil shale for industrial use and peat for agricultural and industrial use are included.

Material flow accounts (MFA) – consistent compilations of the overall material inputs into national economies, the changes of material stock within the economic system and the material outputs into economies of other countries or into the environment, in physical units.

Material flow indicators – indicators derived from material flow balance sheets, contain substantial information about special characteristic of domestic material use, its intensity and productivity and environmental risks connected with the use of natural resources. Material flow indicators are usually classified as material input, consumption, resource productivity and intensity, material output and balance indicators.

Material input – all materials used in domestic economy (extracted from domestic economy and also imported). Materials are classified according to the basic material categories into biomass, mineral resources and fossil fuels.

Material output – all emissions, land filled wastes and also exported materials expressed as basic natural resources indicating their processing level.

Memorandum items for balancing – materials which are excluded from MFA (bulk water and air flows), but are essential for the mass balance. Balancing items are added to the input and output side of material balance sheet as well.

Memorandum items for balancing input – quantity of oxygen used for combustion of fuels and respiration of humans and livestock have been taken into account.

Memorandum items for balancing output – water vapour from combustion (due to water contents and from hydrogen contents of fuels) and also carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour from respiration of humans and livestock have been taken into account.

Minerals – cement and ceramic clay, technological limestone and limestone for cement, lake lime, land for technology and ceramics, sapropel, constructional gravel, constructional sand, construction limestone and dolomite, used waste of excavation of mineral recourses and used waste of stones and soil.

Physical exports – all exported materials are recalculated for their basic natural resources indicating their processing level: raw material, semi-manufactured products and finished products. For example a refrigerator made mostly of metals is accounted as a finished product of mineral resources, as metallic minerals were extracted for its production.

Physical imports – all imported materials are recalculated for their basic natural resources indicating their processing level: raw material, semi-manufactured products and finished products. For example a refrigerator made mostly of metals is accounted as a finished product of mineral resources, as metallic minerals were extracted for its production.

Physical trade balance – measures surplus or deficit of the physical trade of country’s economy. Physical trade balance equals imports minus exports.

Total domestic output – material flow indicator representing the total quantity of material outputs into the environment. In addition to domestic processed output the unused domestic extraction is included in total domestic output.

Unused biomass from harvest – estimations of wood harvesting losses and discarded by-catch in fishery are included in this indicator.

Unused domestic extraction – materials which are moved or extracted from the environment during economic activity, but which were not used in production or consumption process (for example mining overburden, soil and rock excavated during construction and not used elsewhere and harvest residues).

Unused extraction from mining and quarrying – quantity of land filled waste from excavation of mineral recourses and quantity of land filled stones and soil.

Used domestic extraction – all solid, liquid and gaseous materials which are of economic value and are used in production and consumption activities.

METHODOLOGY

The next methodological guides were used during compiling the Material Flow Accounts:

1. Economy-wide material flow accounts and derived indicators – A methodological guide, Eurostat 2001.

2. Economy-wide Material Flow Accounting – guide for beginners, co-ordinated by Helga Weisz and Willi Haas, Eurostat 2006.

3. Economy Wide Material Flow Accounts: Compilation Guidelines for reporting to the 2009 Eurostat questionnaire”, Eurostat 2009.

4. Measuring material flows and resource productivity. Synthesis report, OECD 2007

Material Flow Accounts indicators formulas for calculating:

Indicator

Abbreviation

Calculation formula

Domestic extraction (used) (DEu)

 

Direct material import (DMI)

(DEu) + Imports

Domestic extraction + Imports

Domestic material consumption (DMC)

(DEu) + Imports – Exports

Domestic extraction + Imports – Exports

Resource productivity

GDP / DMC

GDP / Domestic material consumption

Direct resource productivity

GDP / DMI

GDP / Direct material input

Domestic material intensity

DMC / GDP

Domestic material consumption / GDP

Direct material intensity

DMI / GDP

Direct material input / GDP

MORE DATA

Eesti Statistika Kvartalikiri. 4/2010. Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics Estonia.

CONTACT PERSON

Swen Peterson

Economic and Environmental Statistics Department

Tel +372 625 9340

swen.peterson@stat.ee

Updated: 06.03.2020