Financial leasing – a lease contract by which all risks and rewards of ownership are transferred from lessor to lessee.

Fixed assets – long-term financial assets (including shares and securities), investment properties, intangible and tangible assets.

Investment property – land and /or buildings held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both.

Investments in fixed assets – the cost of buildings, equipment, machinery, vehicles, installation, etc. purchased in the reference period; in the case of construction and reconstruction of the existing fixed assets, it includes also the cost of work done; investments in intangible goods and in valuables.

Net profit (loss) – the difference between the income and expenses of an accounting entity during an accounting period.

Net sales – the revenue from the sale of goods and services, which does not include VAT and excises. In tables the indicator ‘Net sales’ generally includes subsidies if the additional note is absent.

Number of employees – persons who work for an employer and who have a contract of employment and receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries, fees, gratuities, piecework pay or remuneration in kind. Number of employees is measured as an annual average.

Number of enterprises – enterprises, which were economically active in the reference period (had net sales, expenditure, etc).

Number of hours worked – hours actually worked during normal working hours (of full- and part-time employees) and also overtime. If the exact number of hours actually worked is not known, it may be estimated on the basis of the theoretical number of working hours.

Number of persons employed – total number of persons who work in the enterprise, irrespective of the length of their working week. The number of persons employed is measured as an annual average.

Employed persons include:

- working proprietors and unpaid family members;

- full- and part-time employees who are on the pay-roll;

- persons who work outside the unit (sales representatives, delivery personnel, repair and maintenance teams, etc.) but who are in the staff list and on the pay-roll of the enterprise;

- persons temporarily absent from work (persons on sick leave, paid leave, study leave, on strike, etc.);

- seasonal workers, trainees (apprentices) and home workers who are on the pay-roll;

- persons employed under contract for services.

Unpaid family workers refer to persons who live with the proprietor of the enterprise and work regularly for the enterprise, but who do not have an employment contract and who do not receive remuneration for the work they perform. This group includes only those persons who are not on the payroll of another enterprise as full-time employees.

The number of employed persons excludes the staff of other enterprises who carry out ordered work, and also persons who are absent from work for a long time (persons on child care leave, conscripts, etc.)

Personnel expenses are made up of wages and salaries, and social tax.

Sale to non-residents – the revenue from the sale of goods and services to non-residents.

Total profit (loss) – net sales minus costs.

Wages and salaries – the total remuneration payable to all persons counted on the payroll (including home workers), in return for work done during the reference period.

Formulas of productivity measures



Return on equity (ROE)


net profit

—–——————— Χ 100

average equity

Net profit (loss)

net sales + other revenue + financial income + extraordinary income  – costs – other expenses – financial costs – extraordinary costs

Return on assets (ROA)


net profit

——–——————— Χ 100

average assets total

Working capital

(thousand kroons)

current assets – current liabilities

Working capital to assets


current assets – current liabilities

——————————————— Χ 100

assets total

Current ratio


current assets


current liabilities

Quick ratio


current assets – inventories


current liabilities

Financial leverage


average assets


average equity

Capitalisation ratio


long-term liabilities


long-term liabilities + equity

Equity assets ratio




equity + liabilities

Average interest rate


interest expenses

————————— x 100

average total debt

Assets net sales

(times per year)

net sales


average assets

Inventory net sales

(times per year)

net sales


average inventories

Tangible assets net sales

(times per year)

net sales


average tangible assets (original cost less depreciation)

Debt to equity


average total debt


average equity

Growth rate of assets


change in assets

———————————————— x 100

assets in the beginning of the year

Growth rate of tangible assets

(%, original cost )

change in tangible assets(original cost)

—————————————————— x 100

tangible assets in the beginning of the year (original cost)



The financial data of enterprises have been collected on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire “EKOMAR”.

The financial data of enterprises do not include data of budgetary institutions and organisations, sole proprietors and farms. The financial data of enterprises total do not include the data of the branch of activity "Financial intermediation".


Statistical unit

Statistical unit is the enterprise as a company — public limited company, private limited company, general partnership, limited partnership, commercial association and branch of foreign company.

Population and sampling frame

Survey population comprises enterprises, which are included in the register of economically active enterprises called statistical profile. The statistical profile is created on the basis of the database of the Ministry of Justice Centre of Register and is used as a sampling frame.


The financial data (excluding enterprises of financial intermediation) are collected by sample survey, using stratified simple random sampling. The population was stratified by economic activity, by number of persons employed and by type of owner.

Data of financial enterprises are collected exhaustively.

Enterprises have been divided into groups by economic activity according to the Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK), which is based on the NACE (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Communities).

Enterprises were classified also by type of owner according to shareholding interest (i.e. who holds the majority of votes in commercial undertaking). Enterprises are considered to be in public ownership in case the shareholding of the state or local government is 50% or more.

Enterprises are considered to be in private ownership in case the shareholding of the state or local government is less than 50%.

All state and municipal enterprises as well as enterprises of private ownership with 20 or more employees are completely enumerated. The rest of enterprises belonging to Estonian and foreign persons in private law are sampled. The data collected by sample survey were expended to the whole population.


According to the Official Statistics Act (Articles 8 and 9), Statistics Estonia is obliged to ensure the protection of the collected data. The data can be used only for statistical purposes. The data are disseminated and transmitted in a generalised form, all characteristics, which permit identification of respondents, are excluded, the data have to be grouped in at least threes where the proportion of each respondent's data in aggregations does not exceed 90%. In case there are only one or two enterprises in a group, the data can be transmitted or disseminated only by the written consent of respondents.


Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2003) based on NACE Rev.1.1

K 71

Renting of machinery and equipment without operator

K 711

..renting of automobiles

K 712

..renting of other transport equipment

K 713

..renting of other machinery and equipment

K 714

..renting of personal and household goods n.e.c.

K 72

Computer and related activities

K 721+K 722

..hardware consultancy, software consultancy and supply

K 721

....hardware consultancy

K 722 consultancy and supply

K 723+K 724 processing, database activities

K 723 processing

K 724

....database activities

K 725+K 726

..maintenance and repair of office and computing machinery, other computer related activities

K 725

....maintenance and repair of office and computing machinery

K 726

....other computer related activities

K 74

Other business activities

K 741, accounting etc. activities; market research; holdings

K 744


K 745

..labour recruitment and provision of personnel

K 746

..investigation and security activities

K 747

..industrial cleaning

K 748

..miscellaneous business activities n.e.c.

O 93

Other service activities


Eesti statistika aastaraamat. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia

Ettevυtlus. Business


Hille Vares

Enterprise and Agricultural Statistics Department

Tel +372 625 9193

Updated: 19.03.2014