DEFINITIONS

Domestic tourism activities of resident visitors of Estonia travelling to and staying in places only within Estonia but outside their usual environment.

Domestic visitor a resident of Estonia who travels within Estonia and visits places outside his/her usual environment.

Job – explicit or implicit contract between a person and a resident institutional unit to perform work in return for compensation for a defined period or until further notice. It also includes second, third, etc. jobs of the same person (ESA95). In tourism satellite accounts it is assumed that performed work is directly related to the visitors services.

Inbound tourism activities of non-resident visitors travelling to and staying in Estonia and outside their usual environment.

Internal tourism tourism of visitors, both resident and non-resident, within the economic territory of the country of reference.

Non-resident – a person who has a citizenship of a foreign country or, in case of missing citizenship, who has a permanent residence abroad.

Non-resident visitor – a person who travels to a country other than in which he/she has his/her usual residence but outside his/her usual environment for a period not exceeding 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

Non-specific industry – industry, which is not defined as tourism characteristic or tourism connected industry, but which products might be consumed by visitors.

Non-specific product – product that is not defined as tourism specific product, but it might be consumed by visitors.

Resident – Estonian citizens residing in Estonia; aliens residing in Estonia with a permanent residence permit; aliens residing in Estonia with a temporary residence permit for at least one year; Estonian citizens studying or receiving medical treatment abroad, regardless of the length of studies or medical treatment; diplomats, military personnel, staff of consular and other representative offices as well as their family members staying abroad and enjoying immunity and diplomatic privileges; ship crews, seasonal and border workers, regardless of the duration of their residence on the territory of a foreign country.

Tourism activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business or other purposes.

Tourism characteristic industry industry, which characteristic products represent a significant share of tourism consumption.

Tourism characteristic product – product that represents a significant share of tourism consumption and whose absence might significantly affect tourism consumption.

Tourism connected industry industry, which characteristic products are easily identified and consumed by visitors.

Tourism connected product – product that is not defined as tourism characteristic product, but it represents a certain share in tourism consumption.

Tourism consumption the total consumption expenditure made by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for or during his/her trip and stay at destination.

Tourism specific product – tourism characteristic product or tourism connected product.

Visitor a person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of visit is other than exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

METHODOLOGY

Data sources

The main data sources used in the compilation of the Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) are the Tourism Surveys of Estonian residents, Accommodation, Travel Agencies and Tour Operators, Structural Business Statistics surveys conducted by the Statistics Estonia, Balance of Payments by the Bank of Estonia, the supply and use tables (SUT) and symmetric input-output table, administrative data from the Tax and Customs Board (i.e. declaration on fringe benefits granted to employees), Estonian Labor Force Survey.

Internal tourism consumption

Internal tourism consumption comprises the consumption of both resident and non-resident visitors within the economic territory of the country. The consumption expenditure of tourists is recorded at purchasers’ prices. Internal tourism consumption is the sum of inbound tourism consumption, domestic tourism consumption and other components of tourism consumption.

Inbound tourism consumption concerns the consumption expenditures made by non-resident visitors when travelling to Estonia. This item includes expenditures on accommodation services, food and beverage serving services, international and local passenger transportation services, travel agency and tour operator services, cultural, recreational, health resorts and other services. Expenditures of seasonal and border workers as well as exports of educational and medical services are excluded from tourism statistics.

Domestic tourism consumption corresponds to the consumption expenditures made by the resident visitors when travelling within Estonia. This component covers accommodation services, food and beverage serving services, transportation and other goods and services. The domestic portion of outbound travel is also included in domestic tourism consumption. It covers consumption expenditures of resident visitors before departure (for example, international passenger transportation services provided by Estonian enterprises, travel agency and tour operator services, travel insurance, currency exchange, trade margin and excise of motor fuel). Consumption expenditures made by the resident visitors abroad are not included.

Other components of tourism consumption refer to the business tourism expenses, imputed rentals for second homes and final consumption in kind (i.e. private use of business cars free of charge or at a preferential price for activities not related to the employer’s business).

Tourism products and tourism industries

According to the Eurostat ”European Implementation Manual on Tourism Satellite Accounts”, all goods and services are classified into tourism specific products and non-specific products. Tourism specific products include tourism characteristic and tourism connected products. The consumption of tourism specific products by visitors represents a significant share of total tourism consumption. The list of tourism specific products includes accommodation services, food and beverage serving services, passenger transportation services, travel agency and tour operator service, cultural and other services.

In the TSA, all industries are considered as tourism characteristic industries, tourism connected industries and non-specific industries. Accommodation, food and beverage service activities, activities of travel agencies and tour operators are considered as tourism characteristic industries as the main products produced by those activities are relatively more consumed by the visitors.

Direct and indirect effects of tourism consumption

The contribution of tourism consumption to GDP is calculated on the basis of the supply and use tables. Main aggregates of TSA such as tourism output and tourism value added are estimated from the demand side. Internal tourism consumption expenditures broken down by products and valued at purchasers’ prices are first transformed into basic prices. The goods and services imported into the country are separated from the tourism consumption. Tourism ratio in the domestic supply of the relevant tourism characteristic products is calculated by dividing the internal tourism consumption expenditures by the domestic supply valued at the basic prices, which is then applied to the output by industries. The tourism value added by industry is calculated using the tourism output’s ratio assumption. It is assumed that the value added ratio is the same as the output ratio, regardless of whether output is purchased by visitors or non-visitors. Tourism GDP is estimated by adding tourism value added of all industries and tourism taxes less subsidies on products. The contribution of tourism industry to GDP for 2000–2007 is calculated on the basis of the supply and use tables for the corresponding years.

In 2000–2007, the symmetric product by product input-output table for 2005 was used to measure total direct and indirect effects on the national economy of changes in tourism demand.

Tourism employment

According to the United Nations recommendations „TSA: Recommended methodological framework 2008“ tourism employment refers to the employment strictly related to the goods and services acquired by visitors. To estimate it in 2003-2007 the number of full-time equivalent jobs in tourism characteristic industries was used. As these industries usually include services for both visitors and non-visitors, tourism employment was derived by using tourism ratios.

 

CLASSIFICATIONS

Classification of tourism activities

Industry

NACE Rev. 1

Description

Tourism characteristic industries

Accommodation

H 551

Hotels and similar accommodation

H 552

Camping sites and other provision of short-stay accommodation, student residences and other accommodation

Renting of residential buildings

K 70201

Renting of apartment building and dwellings; own-account production of housing services by owner-occupiers

Food and beverage service activities

H 553

Restaurants and other food service activities

H 554

Bars

H 555

Canteen and catering

Transport via railways

I 601

Passenger and freight transport via railways

Other land passenger transport

I 60212

Scheduled bus transport

I 6022

Taxi operation, renting of passenger cars with driver

I 6023

Non-scheduled bus transport, sightseeing-bus, airport transfers, rent of buses and coaches with operator and other land passenger transport

Water transport

I 61

Sea and coastal passenger and freight water transport, inland water transport

Air transport

I 62

Passenger and freight scheduled air transport, charter air transport

Supporting transport activities

I 631

Warehousing and storage

I 632

Supporting transport activities, parking activities

Renting of machinery without operator and of household goods

K 71

Renting of machinery without operator and of household goods

Activities of travel agencies and tour operators

I 633

Activities of travel agencies and tour operators, activities of tourist guides, provision of travel information to visitors

Recreational, cultural and sporting activities

O 92

Recreational, cultural and sporting activities

Tourism connected industries

G 50

Sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; retail sale of automotive fuel

I 60211

Tramway and trolley bus transport

I 6024

Freight transport by road

K 748

Miscellaneous business activities n.e.c.

M 80

Education (non-financial corporations and households sectors)

Non-specific industries

A, B, C, D, E, F, G 51, G 52, I 60219, I 64, K 701, K 70201,

K 70202, K 70203, K 703, K 72, K 73, K 741, K 742, K 743,

K 744, K 745, K 746, K 747, L 75, M 80 (general government and NPISH sectors), N 85, O 90, O 91, O 93

 

Classification of tourism products

Product

CPA 2002

Description

Tourism characteristic products

Accommodation services

Hotel and other accommodation services, actual rentals for housing

551

Hotel and similar accommodation services

552

Holiday and other short stay accommodation services; accommodation services for students in student residences and school dormitories; other accommodation services

702011

Actual rentals for housing

Imputed rentals for second homes

70201

Imputed rentals for second homes

Food and beverage serving services

553

Food serving services

554

Beverage-serving services

Passenger transportation services

Transportation by railway

60101

Inter-urban passenger transportation services by railway

Other land transportation services

60212

Mixed mode land transportation

60213

Urban and suburban passenger transportation, other than by railway

60214

Interurban passenger transportation, other than by railway

6022

Taxi services and rental services of passenger cars with driver

6023

Other land passenger transportation services

Water transport services

61101

Sea and coastal water passenger transportation services

611031

Rental services of sea-going vessels with crew

61201

Passenger transportation services by vessels on inland waterways

612031

Rental services of non-sea-going vessels with crew

Air transport services

62101

Scheduled passenger transportation services by air

62201

Non-scheduled passenger transportation services by air

62203

Rental services of aircraft with crew

Other transport supporting services

632

Other transport supporting services (port operation services, buss station services, parking services n.e.c.)

Renting services of transport equipment

711

Renting services of motor vehicles

712

Renting services of other transport equipment

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles

502

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles

Travel agency and tour operator services

633

Travel agency and tour operator services; tourist information services, tourist guide services n.e.c.

Cultural services

Entertainment services

921

Motion picture and video services

922

Radio and television services

923

Artistic creation and interpretation services, ticket services, amusement park and theme park services, other entertainment services

Museums and other cultural services

9252

Museum services, operation services of historical sites and buildings and similar visitor attractions

9253

Botanical and zoological garden services and nature reserves services

Recreational and sporting services

Sporting services

926

Sporting services

Other recreational services

927

Recreation parks and beach services, other recreational services

Miscellaneous tourism services

Financial and insurance services

65

Financial intermediation services, except insurance and pension funding services

6603

Travel insurance services

Other tourism services

714

Renting services of personal and household goods

752111

Visa services

9304

Physical well-being services (bath-house and solarium services n.e.c.)

Tourism connected products

505

Distribution margins (sale of automotive fuel)

60211

Tramway and trolley bus services

6024

Freight transportation services by road

748

Photographic services, telephone answering services and other business services

804

Driving school services, language school services and other education services

9251

Library and archive services

Non-specific products

01-45, 501, 503, 504, 51, 52, 61102, 611032, 61202, 612032, 62102, 62202, 631, 64, 6601, 6602, 67, 701, 702011, 702012, 703, 713, 72, 73, 741, 742, 743, 744,745, 746, 747, 75 (except 752111), 801-803, 85, 90, 91, 924, 9301-9303, 9305

CONTACT PERSON

Polina Gabitova

Economic and Environmental Statistics Department

Tel +372 625 9207

polina.gabitova@stat.ee

Updated: 05.01.2015