Financial leasing – a lease contract by which all risks and rewards of ownership are transferred from lessor to lessee.

Fixed assets – include long-term financial assets (including shares and securities), investment properties, intangible and tangible assets.

Investments in fixed assets – the cost of buildings, equipment, machinery, vehicles, installation, etc. purchased in the reference period; in the case of construction and reconstruction of the existing fixed assets, it includes also the cost of work done; investments in intangible goods and in valuables.

Investment property – land and /or buildings held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both.

Net profit (loss) – the difference between the income and expenses of an accounting entity during an accounting period.

Net sales – income from sale of all products, goods and services received or to be received, which does not include VAT and excises. Net sales is equal with the pay received or to be received and is calculated on a accrual basis accounting. In tables the indicator ‘Net sales’ generally includes subsidies if the additional note is absent.

Number of employees – persons who work for an employer and who have a contract of employment and receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries, fees, gratuities, piecework pay or remuneration in kind. Number of employees is measured as an annual average.

Number of enterprises – enterprises, which were economically active in the reference period (had sales, expenditure, etc.).

Number of hours worked – hours actually worked during normal working hours (of full- and part-time employees) and also overtime. If the exact number of hours actually worked is not known, it may be estimated on the basis of the theoretical number of working hours.

Number of persons employed – total number of persons who work in the enterprise, irrespective of the length of their working week. The number of persons employed is measured as an annual average.

Employed persons include:

- working proprietors and unpaid family members;

-  full- and part-time employees who are on the pay-roll;

- persons who work outside the unit (sales representatives, delivery personnel, repair and maintenance teams, etc.) but who are in the staff list and on the pay-roll of the enterprise;

- persons temporarily absent from work (persons on sick leave, paid leave, study leave, on strike, etc.);

- seasonal workers, trainees (apprentices) and homeworkers who are on the pay-roll;

- persons employed under contract for services.

Unpaid family workers refer to persons who live with the proprietor of the enterprise and work regularly for the enterprise, but who do not have an employment contract and who do not receive remuneration for the work they perform. This group includes only those persons who are not on the payroll of another enterprise as full-time employees.

The number of employed persons excludes the staff of other enterprises who carry out ordered work, and also persons who are absent from work for a long time (persons on child care leave, conscripts, etc.).

Sale to non-residents  – the revenue from the sale of goods and services to non-residents.

Personnel expenses are made up of wages and salaries, and social tax.

Total profit (loss) – net sales minus costs.

Wages and salaries – the total remuneration payable to all persons counted on the payroll (including homeworkers), in return for work done during the reference period.


Formulas of productivity measures




Productivity measures by net sales



Productivity of labour (thousand kroons)

net sales


average number of persons employed


Productivity per hour (kroons)

net sales


number of hours worked by employees


Productivity of personnel costs (kroons)

net sales


personnel expenses


Total productivity (kroons)

net sales



Productivity measures by value added


Productivity of labour (thousand kroons)

value added


average number of persons employed


Productivity per hour (kroons)

value added


number of hours worked by employees


Productivity of personnel costs (kroons)

value added


personnel expenses


Total productivity (kroons)

value added



Value added at factor cost

net sales (without subsidies) + change in stocks of work-in-progress and finished goods (stocks at the end minus stocks at the beginning of the reference year) + capitalized self-constructed assets + other revenue (without profit from the sale of tangible assets) – other expenses (without loss from the sale of tangible assets) – costs of merchandise, materials, supplies, intermediate goods, electricity, fuel, power, laid-out work – duties and taxes linked to production – taxes on products




The financial data of enterprises have been collected on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire “EKOMAR”.


Statistical unit

Statistical unit is the enterprise as a company – public limited company, private limited company, general partnership, limited partnership, commercial association and branch of foreign company.

Population and sampling frame

Survey population comprise enterprises, which are included in the register of economically active enterprises called statistical profile. The statistical profile is created on the basis of the database of the Ministry of Justice Centre of Register and is used as a sampling frame.


The financial data (excluding enterprises of financial intermediation) are collected by sample survey, using stratified simple random sampling. The population was stratified by economic activity, by number of persons employed and by type of owner.

Data of financial enterprises are collected exhaustively.

Enterprises have been divided into groups by economic activity according to the Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK), which is based on the NACE (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Communities).

Enterprises were classified also by type of owner according to shareholding interest (i.e. who holds the majority of votes in commercial undertaking). Enterprises are considered to be in public ownership in case the shareholding of the state or local government is 50% or more.

Enterprises are considered to be in private ownership in case the shareholding of the state or local government is less than 50%.

All state and municipal enterprises as well as enterprises of private ownership with 20 or more employees are completely enumerated. The rest of enterprises belonging to Estonian and foreign persons in private law are sampled. The data collected by sample survey were expended to the whole population.

Number of respondents

The group of respondents includes enterprises, which had completed the questionnaire, as well as enterprises, which had no economic activity in the reference period.


According to the Official Statistics Act (Articles 8 and 9), Statistics Estonia is obliged to ensure the protection of the collected data. The data can be used only for statistical purposes. The data are disseminated and transmitted in a generalised form, all characteristics, which permit identification of respondents, are excluded, the data have to be grouped in at least threes where the proportion of each respondent's data in aggregations does not exceed 90%. In case there are only one or two enterprises in a group, the data can be transmitted or disseminated only by the written consent of respondents.


Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2003) based on NACE Rev.1.1



Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods


Sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; retail sale of automotive fuel


Sale of motor vehicles


Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles


Sale of motor vehicle parts and accessories


Sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles and related parts and accessories


Retail sale of automotive fuel


Wholesale trade and commission trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles


Wholesale on a fee or contract basis


Wholesale of agricultural raw materials and live animals


Wholesale of food, beverages and tobacco


Wholesale of household goods


Wholesale of textiles


Wholesale of clothing and footwear


Wholesale of non-agricultural intermediate products, waste and scrap


Wholesale of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and related products


Wholesale of metals and metal ores


Wholesale of wood, construction materials and sanitary equipment


Wholesale of hardware, plumbing and heating equipment and supplies


Wholesale of chemical products


Wholesale of machinery, equipment and supplies


Other wholesale


Retail trade, excl motor vehicles and motorcycles; repair of personal and household goods


Retail sale in non-specialized stores


Retail sale in non-specialized stores with food, beverages or tobacco predominating


Other retail sale in non-specialized stores


Retail sale of food, beverages and tobacco in specialized stores


Retail sale of pharmaceutical and medical goods, cosmetics and toilet articles


Dispensing chemists


Retail sale of medical and orthopaedic goods


Retail sale of cosmetic and toilet articles


Other retail sale of new goods in specialized stores


Retail sale of textiles


Retail sale of clothing


Retail sale of footwear and leather goods


Retail sale of furniture, lighting equipment and household articles n.e.c.


Retail sale of electrical household appliances and radio and television goods


Retail sale of hardware, paints and glass


Retail sale of books, newspapers and stationery


Other retail sale in specialized stores


Retail sale of second-hand goods in stores


Retail sale not in stores


Retail sale via mail order houses


Repair of personal and household goods


Eesti statistika aastaraamat. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia

Ettevυtlus. Business


Tatjana Semjonova

Enterprise and Agricultural Statistics Department

Tel +372 625 9163

Updated: 12.05.2008