DEFINITIONS

 

General trade system — the system of compiling foreign trade statistics which takes into account in addition to goods crossing the boundary of the free circulation area also the goods imported from abroad into customs warehouses and goods re-exported from customs warehouses.

General imports — normal imports (imports of goods to Estonia for domestic consumption), imports for inward processing with notification of intended return, re-imports after processing outside of Estonia and imports from abroad into customs warehouses.

General exports — normal exportation (exportation of goods produced in Estonia or owned by Estonian legal persons), re-exportation after inward processing, re-exportation from customs warehouses and supplies for foreign vessels and aircraft stores.

Special trade system — the system of compiling foreign trade statistics which takes into account goods crossing the boundary of the free circulation area.

Special imports — normal importation (imports of goods to Estonia for domestic consumption), imports for inward processing with notification of intended return and re-imports after processing outside of Estonia (imports from abroad into customs warehouses is excluded).

Special exports — normal exportation (exportation of goods produced in Estonia or owned by Estonian legal persons), re-exportation after inward processing and supplies for foreign vessels and aircraft stores (re-exportation from customs warehouses is excluded).

CIF value — the cost of commodity that includes the production, transportation and insurance costs up to the border of the importing country.

FOB value — the cost of commodity that includes the production and transportation costs up to the border of the exporting country.

 

 

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

The production of foreign trade statistics is based on the data declared on single administrative documents (SAD). Statistical survey is used for goods which are not subject to customs clearance.

The production of foreign trade statistics is regulated by the Statistics Act, the Customs Act and the recommendations of the United Nations Statistical Commission and the Statistical Office of European Communities (Eurostat).

The border crossing date marked in the goods declaration at the border inspection post verifies the exports or imports transaction and serves as a basis for including data into the database of the respective month.

Both exports and imports are valued at the Estonian border: exports are valued FOB (sale price) and imports are valued CIF (purchase price).

Commodities are classified according to the Nomenclature of Estonian Commodities (hereinafter NEC; introduced on 1 April 1993 and updated every year on 1 January). From 1999, pursuant to NEC, the numerical code of goods consists of ten digits, as against the previous nine digits.

NEC is a national classification, which is based on the Harmonized System (HS) used in international trade. The first six digits equal the HS, the first eight digits equal the Combined Tariff and Statistics Nomenclature of EEC. The ninth and the tenth digit serve as an additional code for the two-digit NEC, which arise from the requirements of the trade policy or taxation.

The nomenclature divides commodities into 21 sections and 97 chapters.

The units of measurement are in accordance with the requirements established by the NEC.

In exports, the partner country is the country of destination, in imports — the country where the goods have been produced (country of origin).

The countries are classified on the basis of the Standard of Country Area Codes (ISO 3166).

The data received from the Customs Board are sent to the Statistical Office of Estonia where the following corrections are made:

addition of the data on

¾   exports of electrical energy (monthly data),

¾   imports of natural gas (monthly data),

¾   sale of fish or crustaceans in foreign waters and ports (monthly data);

exclusion of the data on

¾   imports and exports of bank notes in circulation (code 490700300),

¾   tax stamps of excise on tobacco (code 490700102),

¾   tax stamps of excise on alcohol (code 490700103),

¾   monetary gold (code 710820),

¾   goods for use by embassies,

¾   supplies to duty and tax-free shops at ports and airports (code 96),

¾   destruction of goods under customs supervision (code 93),

¾   permanent use of goods under customs supervision (code 94),

¾   until 1995 goods with a value below 300 kroons and since 1995 goods with a value below 325 kroons,

¾   in case Estonia is the country of destination, placement of goods intended for exports or re-exportation into the free zone (part of goods declared under the customs procedure code 78).

Since 1994, foreign trade statistics exclude temporary exportation (importation) subject to re-exportation (re-importation) in an unaltered state.

The purpose or object of the temporary importation or exportation of goods may be:

¾   exhibitions, fairs, symposiums, conferences, competitions, etc., where goods are displayed or demonstrated;

¾   equipment and materials necessary for carrying out exhibitions, fairs, symposiums, conferences, etc.;

¾   marked samples of goods;

¾   professional equipment necessary for performing work tasks;

¾   containers, pallets or other packings necessary for transportation of goods;

¾   equipment used in production;

¾   equipment necessary for carrying out and used at athletic contests;

¾   medical (incl. surgical) and laboratory equipment for rendering first aid;

¾   motor vehicles specially built or rebuilt to serve a specific purpose;

¾   motor vehicles for the natural person’s personal use only;

¾   leased or rented goods.

From 1995 the Customs Board started to declare the repair of foreign vessels (the full value of vessels is declared both on arrival to Estonia and on departure after the repair). As the repair of capital goods falls under services, these data have been excluded from foreign trade statistics. Since 2001 also the repair of airplanes abroad is excluded.

In 1999 free zones were established in the territory of Estonia and, consequently, customs procedure codes 78 (placement of goods intended for exports or re-exportation into the free zone) and 56 (temporary importation for processing in the free zone) were added.

Exports and imports do not include information concerning the conveyance of goods, owned by legal persons residing in foreign countries, from one foreign country to another through the territory of Estonia (with both the sender and consignee of goods being outside the Estonian borders), i.e. so-called transit haulage, as well as imports and exports of goods owned by private persons.

When publishing the exports and imports data by CPA (Statistical Classification of Products by Activity) product classes and SITC (Standard International Trade Classification Rev.3) commodity sections, the goods are transferred from HS to the corresponding classifications.

 

 

 

 

CLASSIFICATIONS

 

HARMONIZED SYSTEM

HS commodity sections and chapters

                       

 

I

Live animals; animal products

 

01

Live animals

 

02

Meat and edible meat offal

 

03

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

 

04

Dairy products; bird's eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included

 

05

Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included

II

Vegetable products

 

06

Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage

 

07

Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers

 

08

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

 

09

Coffee, tea, mate, spices

 

10

Cereals

 

11

Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten

 

12

Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruit; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder

 

13

Shellac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts

 

14

Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included

III

Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes

 

15

Animal or vegetable fats and oils or their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or
vegetable waxes

IV

Prepared foodstuffs; beverages, spirits and vinegar; tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes

 

16

Preparations of meat, of fish, or of crustaceans

 

17

Sugar and sugar confectionery

 

18

Cocoa and cocoa preparations

 

19

Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; pastrycooks' products

 

20

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants

 

21

Miscellaneous edible preparations

 

22

Beverages, spirits and vinegar

 

23

Residues and  waste from the food industries; prepared animal fodder

 

24

Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes

V

Mineral products

 

25

Salt; sulphur; earths and stone, lime and cement

 

26

Ores, slag and ash

 

27

Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their  distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes

VI

Products of the chemical or allied industries

 

28

Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals, of radioactive elements or of isotopes

 

29

Organic chemicals

 

30

Pharmaceutical products

 

31

Fertilizers

 

32

Tanning or dyeing extracts; tannins and their derivatives; dyes, pigments and other colouring matter; paints and varnishes; putty and other mastics; inks

 

33

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations

 

34

Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing and lubricating preparations, prepared waxes, polishing preparations, candles, modelling pastes, dental preparations with a basis of plaster

 

35

Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; enzymes

 

36

Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations

 

37

Photographic or cinematographic goods

 

38

Miscellaneous chemical products

VII

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

 

39

Plastics and articles thereof

 

40

Rubber and articles thereof

VIII

Raw hides and skins, leather, furskins and articles thereof; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut

 

41

Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather

 

42

Articles  of leather; saddlery and harness, travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut)

 

43

Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof

IX

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal; cork and articles of cork; manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork

 

44

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal

 

45

Cork and articles of cork

 

46

Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork

X

Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard; paper and paperboard and articles thereof

 

47

Pulp  of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard

 

48

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard

 

49

Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans

XI

Textiles and textile articles

 

50

Silk

 

51

Wool, fine  or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric

 

52

Cotton and articles thereof

 

53

Other vegetable fibres; paper yarn and woven fabrics of paper yarn

 

54

Man-made filaments

 

55

Man-made staple fibres

 

56

Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns; twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof

 

57

Carpets and other textile floor coverings

 

58

Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace; tapestries; trimmings; embroidery

 

59

Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use

 

60

Knitted or  crocheted fabrics

 

61

Articles  of  apparel and clothing  accessories; knitted or crocheted

 

62

Articles of apparel and clothing  accessories, not knitted or crocheted

 

63

Other made-up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags

XII

Footwear, headgear, umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seat-sticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof; prepared feathers and articles made therewith; artificial flowers; articles of human hair

 

64

Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles

 

65

Headgear and parts thereof

 

66

Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking-sticks, seat-sticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof

 

67

Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair

XIII

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica and similar materials; ceramic products;
glass and glassware

 

68

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials

 

69

Ceramic products

 

70

Glass and glassware

XIV

Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones, precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewellery; coins

 

71

Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones, precious metals, metals clad with precious metal, and articles thereof; imitation jewellery; coins

XV

Base metals and articles of base metal

 

72

Iron and steel

 

73

Articles of iron or steel

 

74

Copper and articles thereof

 

75

Nickel and articles thereof

 

76

Aluminium and articles thereof

 

78

Lead and articles thereof

 

79

Zinc and articles thereof

 

80

Tin and articles thereof

 

81

Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof

 

82

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks of base metal; parts thereof

 

83

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

XVI

Machinery and mechanical appliances; electrical equipment; parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles

 

84

Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

 

85

Electrical machinery  and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles

XVII

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

 

86

Railway  and  tramway locomotives, rolling-stock  and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electromechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds

 

87

Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling-stock, and parts and accessories thereof

 

88

Aircraft, spacecraft and parts thereof

 

89

Ships, boats and floating structures

XVIII

Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; clocks and watches; musical instruments; parts and accessories thereof

 

90

Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof

 

91

Clocks and  watches and parts thereof

 

92

Musical  instruments; parts and accessories of such articles

XIX

Arms and ammunition; parts and accessories thereof

 

93

Arms and ammunition; parts and accessories thereof

XX

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

 

94

Furniture; bedding; mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps  and lighting fittings not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated signs, illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings

 

95

Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof

 

96

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XXI

Works of art, collectors' pieces, and antiques

 

97

Works of art, collectors’ pieces  and antiques

XXII

Supplies for foreign vessels

 

99

Supplies for foreign vessels and other unspecified goods

 

 

 

 

 

MORE DATA

 

Eesti piirkondlik statistika. Regional Statistics of Estonia. Yearbook

Eesti rahvamajanduse arvepidamine. National Accounts of Estonia. Yearbook

Eesti Statistika. Estonian Statistics. Monthly

Väliskaubandus. Foreign Trade. Yearbook

Väliskaubandus. Foreign Trade. Quarterly bulletin

 

 

 

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

The foreign trade data of the current year are revised monthly, data of previous years are revised twice a year (released in April and December).

Foreign trade statistics can be ordered here:

               Ordering of foreign trade statistics.

 

 

 

 

CONTACT PERSON

 

Allan Aron

Foreign trade statistics section

Tel +372 6259 109

allan.aron@stat.ee